TN State Board 11th Commerce Important Questions Chapter 1 Historical Background of Commerce in the Sub-Continent

Question 1.
What is meant by Barter system?
Answer:
Before the invention of money goods were exchanged for some other goods.

Question 2.
What is meant by Nallangadi?
Answer:
Day market was called as Nalangadi according to Saint, Poet Ilango Silapathigaram, Madurai to Kanchi.

Question 3.
What is meant by Allangadi?
Answer:
The place where the goods were sold was called ‘Angadi’ in that period. The night market was called as ‘Allangadi’.

Samacheer Kalvi TN Board 11th Commerce Important Questions Chapter 1 Historical Background of Commerce in the Sub-Continent

Question 4.
Explain the meaning of the term “Vanigam”.
Answer:
The word ‘Vanigam’ has been widely used in sangam literature like Purananuru and Thirukkural. The Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions from Alagarmalai, Pugalur, Mangulam and Sri Lanka illustrate the fact that trade in gold, oil, plough, cloth etc.was conducted during the early age.

Question 5.
Write a short note on Maruvurapakkam and Pattinapakkam?
Answer:

  1. Big cities like Poompuhar had the Maruvurappakam’ (inland town) and ‘Pattinapakkam’(coastal Town), had market and bazaars where many merchants met one another for the purpose of selling or buying different kinds of commodities and food stuff.
  2. Port towns like Tondi, Korkai, Puhar and Muziri were always seen as busy with marts and markets with activities related to imports and exports.
  3. In such a brisk trade, people of the coastal region, engaged themselves in coastal trade and developed their intercontinental trade contacts.

Question 6.
What is the role of Sangam in trade development of ancient Tamiinadu?
Answer:

  1. Trade in Sangam period was both internal and external but it was conducted by means of barter (pandamattru) Trade was one of the major means of linking various regions in the medieval period.
  2. Sangam work refers to great traders, their caravans, security force, markets, marts and guilds of such great traders.
  3. The important articles which then hilly tribes offered to their neighbours in exchange were honey and roots and fruits while pastoral people offered cattle, milk and milk products.

Samacheer Kalvi TN Board 11th Commerce Important Questions Chapter 1 Historical Background of Commerce in the Sub-Continent

Question 7.
What are the ports developed by Pandiya kingdom?
Answer:

  1. Trade and commerce was so common to Pandiya Dynasty.
  2. Information collected from the diaries of foreign travellers, voyagers, mariners and adventurers of the ancient world highlighted the prosperity of trade in the Pandiya country.
  3. The Hebrew and Latin literature, archaeological remains in Aden, Alexandria, Java, Sumatra and even China add support to the fact of existence of trade network in the Pandiya country.
  4. At the same time Pandiya developed some parts namely Korkai, Saliyur, Marunguar pattinam and Kumari are important ports among them for foreign trade.

Question 8.
What was focused in Arthasasthra about creation of wealth?
Answer:

  1. “Kautilya’s Arthasasthra” describeseconomy in Mauriyan time. This brought out history of marketing practised some 2000 years ago. According to Kautilya, trade in Medieval India was centralized.
  2. Since the commodities produced could not be sold in the location of production, the state designated certain places for selling the commodities.
  3. It levied duties on goods brought into the city and could be sold after payment of duty.
  4. Only certain merchants were authorized to engage in trade to sell at prices fixed by the chief controllers of State Trading.
  5. Arthasastra focussed on creation of wealth as the means to promote the well being of the people.
  6. Kautilya gave importance for the state in relation to treasury, taxation, industry, commerce, agriculture and conservation of natural resources.

Samacheer Kalvi TN Board 11th Commerce Important Questions Chapter 1 Historical Background of Commerce in the Sub-Continent

Question 9.
What are the hindrances of business?
Answer:
(i) Hindrance of person:
Manufacturers do not know the place and face of the consumers. It is the retailer who knows the taste, preference and location of the consumers. The chain of middlemen consisting of wholesalers, agents and retailers establish the link between the producers and consumers.

(ii) Hindrance of place :
Production takes place in one centre and consumers are spread throughout the country and world. Rail, air, sea and land transports bring the products to the place of consumer.

(iii) Hindrance of time:
Consumers want products whenever they have money, time and willingness to buy. Goods are produced in anticipation of such demands. They are stored in warehouses in different regional centres so that they can be distributed at the right time to the consumers.

(iv) Hindrance of risk of deterioration in quality:
Proper packaging and modem air conditioned storage houses ensure that there is no deterioration in quality of products. Goods are protected against insects, rats, evaporation etc.

(v) Hindrance of risk of loss:
Fire, theft, floods and accidents may bring huge loss to the business. Insurance companies serve to cover the risk of such losses.

Question 10.
State the constraints in barter system.
Answer:
(i) Lack of double coincidence of Wants:
Unless two persons who have surplus have the demand for the goods possessed by each other, barter could not materialize. For instance ‘A’ is having a surplus of groundnut and ‘B’ is possessing rice in surplus. In this case A should be in need of rice possessed by B as the latter should desperately need groundnut possessed by A. If this “coincidence of wants” does not exist, Barter cannot take place.

(ii) Non-existence of common measure of value:
Barter system could not determine the value of commodities to be exchanged as they lacked commonly acceptable measures to evaluate each and every commodity. It was difficult to compare the values of all articles in the absence of an acceptable medium of exchange.

(iii) Lack of direct contact between producer and consumers:
It was not possible for buyers and sellers to meet face to face in many contexts for exchanging the commodities for commodities. This hindered the process of barter in all practical sense.

(iv) Lack of surplus stock:
Absence of surplus stock was one of the impediments in barter system. If the buyers and sellers do not have surplus then no barter was possible.

Samacheer Kalvi TN Board 11th Commerce Important Questions Chapter 1 Historical Background of Commerce in the Sub-Continent

Question 11.
Explain the development of Commerce and Trade in North India.
Answer:

  1. India was prosperous even during the medieval period from 12th to 16th centuries despite political upheavals.
  2. Balban was the first sultan who paved the way in the dense forest and helped traders and their commercial caravans to move from one market place to others. Alauddin Khilji brought the price to a very low ebb.
  3. He encouraged import of foreign goods from Persia and subsidised the goods. Arabs were dominant players in India’s foreign trade.
  4. They never discouraged Indian traders like Tamils, Gujaratis, etc.. The Trade between the coastal ports were in the hands and Marwaris and Gujaratis.
  5. The overland trade with central and west Asia was in the hands of Multanis who were Hindus and Khurasanis who were Afghans, Iranians and so on.

Question 12.
Briefly explain the coastal trade in ancient Tamilnadu.
Answer:

  1. Big cities like Poompuhar had the ‘Maruvurappakam’ (inland town) and ‘Pattinapakkam’ (coastal Town), had market and bazaars where many merchants met one another for the purpose of selling or buying different kinds of commodities and food stuff.
  2. Port towns like Tondi, Korkai, Puhar and Muziri were always seen as busy with marts and markets with activities related to imports and exports.
  3. In such a brisk trade, people of the coastal region, engaged themselves in coastal trade and developed their intercontinental trade contacts.
  4. They were engaged in different kinds of fishing pearls, and conches and produced salts and built ships. Boats like ‘Padagu’, ‘Thimil’, ‘Thoni’, ‘Ambu’ ‘Odampunai’ etc… were used to cross rivers for domestic trade while Kalam, Marakalam, Vangam, Navai etc., were used for crossing oceans for foreign trade.

Samacheer Kalvi TN Board 11th Commerce Important Questions Chapter 1 Historical Background of Commerce in the Sub-Continent

Question 13.
What do you know about the overseas trading partners of ancient Tamilnadu?
Answer:
(i) The growth of civilization witnessed the rise and fall of many dynasties, but still the course of commerce activities continued further and further, not only within a country, but also between nations of the world. However Tamil Nadu remained to be the founder of trade and commerce both within and outside as evidenced in various ancient literatures like Sangam.

(ii) Roman and Greek traders frequented the ancient Tamil country and forged trade relationship with ancient Kings of Pandiya, Chola and Chera dynasties. Cholas had a strong trading relationship with Chinese Song Dynasty. The cholas conquered the Sri Vijaya Empire of Indonesia and Malaysia to secure a sea trading route to China.

(iii) During the 16th and 18th centuries, India’s overseas trade expanded due to trading with European companies. The discovery of new all – sea routes from Europe to India via Cape of Good Hope by Vascoda Gama had far – reaching impact on the civilized world.

(iv) The arrival of Portuguese in India was followed by the advent of other Europeancommunities. India’s maritime trade was a monopolized one over Europeans and at one stage the global trade share of India was 55 per cent which is just 2 per cent in 21st century.

(v) The European merchants who came to India were not only individual merchants but also represented their respective governments. They gained a strong foothold in India’s maritime trade by virtue of their strong naval power. In course of time their commercial motives turned into territorial ambition like the East India Company which became the British Empire here.

(vi) Textiles and ship building earned name and fame in the 17th and 18th centuries. Britishers gradually abolished Princely order in the Indian territories. Thus the demand for Indian goods declined during the British rule.

(vii) Britishers put in place policies prohibiting the export of some of the popular goods like Indian textile goods, handicrafts, to Great Britain.

(viii) Between early 1600 and mid – 19th century, the British East India company led establishment and expansion of foreign trade all over Asia.

(ix) Although initial interest of the East India Company was aimed at reaping profits, their single minded focus was on establishing a trade, monopoly throughout Asia.

Samacheer Kalvi TN Board 11th Commerce Important Questions Chapter 1 Historical Background of Commerce in the Sub-Continent

Choose the correct answer:

Question 1.
The place where the goods are sold is:
(a) Angadi
(b) MarketAnswer:
(c) Nalangadi
(d) Allangadi
Answer:
(a) Angadi

Question 2.
Hindrance of place is removed by:
(a) Transport
(b) Warehouse
(c) Salesman
(d) Insurance
Answer:
(a) Transport

Question 3.
Who wrote “Arthasasthra”?
(a) Kautilya
(b) Chanakiya
(c) Thiruvalluvar
(d) Elangovadigal
Answer:
(a) Kautilya

Samacheer Kalvi TN Board 11th Commerce Important Questions Chapter 1 Historical Background of Commerce in the Sub-Continent

Question 4.
Trade and Commerce was common to ______________ Dynasty.
(a) pallava
(b) Chola
(c) Panidya
(d) Chera
Answer:
(c) Panidya

Question 5.
_________ was first sultan who paved way in the dense forest and helped traders to move from one market place to others place for their commercial caravans.
(a) Balban
(b) Vascoda Gama
(c) Akbar
(d) Alauddin Khilij
Answer:
(a) Balban

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Commerce Notes Chapter 1 Historical Background of Commerce in the Sub-Continent

→ Commerce has been in practice since time immemorial. It is part and parcel of human life, whether it is a king or a common man. It emerged as an economic activity, mainly as barter system which means exchange of goods for goods. Before invention of money barter system is possible.

→ The growth of civilisation witnessed the rise and fall of many dynasties, but still the course of commerce activities continued further and further, not only within the country but also between nations of the world. TamilNadu is one of the founder of trade and commerce both within and outside as evidenced in various ancient literatures like sangam.

→ In early days Ancient people who used the word ‘trade’ The word Vanigam and Vanipam would have had a Dravidian origin. The Vanigam has been widely used in Sangam literature like purananuru and Thirukkural Sangam work refers to great traders, their caravans, security force markets, merits and guilds of such great traders.

Samacheer Kalvi TN Board 11th Commerce Important Questions Chapter 1 Historical Background of Commerce in the Sub-Continent

→ Barter system cemented their relationship internally while cpins were used later for the purpose of exchange of goods in external trade.

→ Trade and commerce was so common to Pandiya Dynasty.

→ Foreigners who transacted business were known as Yavanars. Arabs who traded with Tamil Were called ‘Jonagar’ Hindrance of commerce are eliminated by trade, transport, warehouse, storage house, insurance companies, advertising, banks.

TN Board 11th Commerce Important Questions

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