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## Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 9th Maths Solutions Chapter 1 Set Language Ex 1.2

Question 1.
Find the cardinal number of the following sets.
(i) M = {p, q, r, s, t, u}
(ii) P = {x : x = 3n + 2, n ∈ W and x < 15}
(iii) Q = {y : y = $$\frac{4}{3n}$$, n ∈ N and 2 < n ≤ 5}
(iv) R = {x : x is an integer, x ∈ Z and – 5 ≤ x < 5}
(v) S = The set of all leap years between 1882 and 1906.
Solution:
(i) n (M) = 6
(ii) n (P) = 5 [n = {0, 1, 2, 3 . . . . 14}]
(iii) Since n = {3, 4, 5} ; n (Q) = 3
(iv) X = {-5, -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4} ∴ n (R) = 10
(v) S = {1884, 1888, 1892, 1896, 1904}; n (S) = 5 Question 2.
Identify the following sets as finite or infinite.
(i) X = The set of all districts in Tamilnadu.
(ii) Y = The set of all straight lines passing through a point.
(iii) A = {x : x ∈ Z and x < 5}
(iv) B = {x : x² – 5x + 6 = 0, x ∈ N}
Solution:
(i) Finite
(ii) Infinite set (many lines can be drawn from a point)
(iii) Infinite set {A = ……. -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4}
(iv) Finite set [x² – 5x + 6 = 0 ⇒ (x – 3) (x – 2) = 0; x = 3 and 2]

Question 3.
Which of the following sets are equivalent or unequal or equal sets?
(i) A = The set of vowels in the English alphabets.
B = The set of all letters in the word “VOWEL”
(ii) C = {2, 3, 4, 5}
D = {x : x ∈ W, 1 < x < 5}
(iii) X = {x : x is a letter in the word “LIFE”}
Y = {F, I, L, E}
(iv) G = {x : x is a prime number and 3 < x < 23}
H = {x : x is a divisor of 18}
Solution:
(i) Equivalent set [n(A) = n(B) = 5] ∴ A ≈ B
(ii) Unequal sets [C = {2, 3, 4, 5}; D = {2, 3, 4}]
(iii) Equal sets [X = {L, I, F, E}; Y = {F, I, L, E} [n(X) = 4 = n(Y)] ∴ X ≈ Y
(iv) Equivalent sets [G = {5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19}; H = {1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 18}]
[n(G) = n(H) = 6 ∴ G ≈ H)] Question 4.
Identify the following sets as null set or singleton set.
(i) A = {x : x ∈ N, 1 < x < 2}
(ii) B = The set of all even natural numbers which are not divisible by 2
(iii) C = {0}.
(iv) D = The set of all triangles having four sides.
Solution:
(i) Null set [No natural numbers is in between 1 and 2]
(ii) Null set [All the even natural numbers are not divisible by 2]
(Hi) Singleton set [n (C) = 1]
(iv) Null set [All the triangles has 3 sides]

Question 5.
State which pairs of sets are disjoint or overlapping?
(i) A = {f, i, a, s} and B = {a, n, f, h, s}
A = {f, i, a, s} and B = {a, n, f, h, s}
A and B are overlapping sets

(ii) C = {x : x is a prime number, x > 2} and D = {x : x is an even prime number}
C= {3, 5, 7…….}
D = {2}
C and D are disjoint sets

(iii) E = {x : x is a factor of 24} and F = {x : x is a multiple of 3, x < 30}
E = {1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24}
F = {3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27} [Hint: E ∩ F = {3, 6, 24, …….}]
E and F are overlapping sets Question 6.
If S = {square, rectangle, circle, rhombus, triangle}. List the elements of the following subset of S.
(i) The set of shapes which have 4 equal sides.
(ii) The set of shapes which have radius.
(iii) The set of shapes in which the sum of all interior angles is 180°.
(iv) The set of shapes which have 5 sides.
Solution:
(i) Subset of S = {square, rhombus}
(ii) Subset of S = {circle}
(iii) Subset of S = {triangle}
(iv) Subset of S = { }

Question 7.
If A = {a,{a, b}}, write all the subsets of A.
Solution:
A = {a, {a, b}}
Subset of A are Ø, {a}, {a, b}, {a, {a, b}} (or) { }, {a}, {a,b, {a,{a,b}}
P(A) = {Ø, {a}, {a, b}, {a {a, b}} (or) {{ }, {a}, {a,b, {a,{a,b}} Question 8.
Write down the power set of the following sets.
(i) A = {a, b}
(ii) B = {1, 2, 3}
(iii) D = {p, q, r, s}
(iv) E = Ø
Solution:
(i) A = {a, b)
P(A) = {{},{a},{b}, {a, b}}

(ii) B = {1, 2, 3}
P(B) = {{}, {1}, {2}, {3}, {1,2}, {2, 3}, {1,3}, {1,2,3}}

(iii) D = {p, q, r, s}
P(D) = {{},{p},{q},{r},{s},{p, q} {p, r} {p, s}
{q, r}, {q, s}, {r, s}, {p, q, r} {q, r, s}
{p, r, s} {p, q, s} {p, q, r, s}}

(iv) E = Ø
P(E) = {{}}
Note: (empty set is the subset of all the sets) Question 9.
Find the number of subsets and the number of proper subsets of the following sets.
(i) W = {red, blue, yellow}
(ii) X = {x² : x ∈ N, x² ≤ 100}
Solution:
(i) W = {red, blue, yellow}
n (W) = 3
The number of subsets of W = n [P(W)] = 2m
= 23 = 8
Number of proper subsets of W = n[P(W)] – 1
= 8 – 1
= 7 (or)
Number of proper subsets of W = 2m – 1
= 23 – 1 = 8 – 1 = 7

(ii) X = {x2 : x ∈ N, x2 ≤ 100}.
X= {1,2, 3, 4, …. 10}
n(X) = 10
The number of subsets of X = n[P(X)]
= 2m
= 210 = 1024
Number of proper subsets of X = 2m – 1
= 1024 – 1
= 1023 Question 10.
(i) If n(A) = 4, find n[P(A)]
(ii) If n(A) = 0, find n[P(A)]
(Hi) If n[P(A)] = 256, find n(A)
Solution:
(i) n (A) = 4
n [P(A)] = 2m = 24
= 16

(ii) n (A) = 0
n [P(A)] = 2m = 2° = 1

(iii) n [P(A)] = 256 2m = 28
∴ n (A) = 8