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## Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 9th Maths Solutions Chapter 1 Set Language Ex 1.3

Question 1.
Using the given venn diagram, write the elements of

(i) A
(ii) B
(iii) A∪B
(iv) A∩B
(v) A – B
(vi) B – A
(vii) A’
(viii) B’
(ix) U
Solution:
(i) A = {2, 4, 7, 8, 10}
(ii) B = {3, 4, 6, 7, 9, 11}
(iii) A∪B = {2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11}
(iv) A∩B = {4, 7}
(v) A – B = {2, 8, 10}
(vi) B – A = {3, 6, 9, 11}
(vii) A’ = {1, 3, 6, 9, 11, 12}
(viii) B’ = {1,2, 8, 10, 12}
(ix) U = {1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12}

Question 2.
Find A∪B, A∩B, A – B and B – A for the following sets
(i) A = {2, 6, 10, 14} and B = {2, 5, 14, 16}
Solution:
A∪B = {2, 6, 10, 14} ∪ {2, 5, 14, 16}
= {2, 5, 6, 10, 14, 16}
A∩B = {2, 6, 10, 14} ∩ {2, 5, 14, 16}
= {2, 14}
A – B = {2, 6, 10, 14} – {2, 5, 14, 16}
= {6, 10}
B – A = {2, 5, 14, 16} – {2, 6, 10, 14}
= {5, 16}

(ii) A = {a, b, c, e, u} and B = {a, e, i, o, u}
Solution:
A∪B = {a, b, c, e, u} ∪ {a, e, i, o, u}
= {a, b, c, e, i, o, u}
A∩B = {a, b, c, e, u} ∩ {a, e, i, o, u}
= {a, e, u}
A – B = {a, b, c, e, u} – {a, e, i, o, u}
= {b, c}
B – A = {a, e, i, o, u} – {a, b, c, e, u}
= {i, o}

(iii) A = {x : x ∈ N, x ≤ 10} and B = {x : x ∈ W, x < 6}
Solution:
A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7, 8, 9, 10} and B = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
A∪B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10} ∪ {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
= {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}
A∩B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10} ∩ {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
A – B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10} – {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
= {6, 7, 8, 9, 10}
B – A = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5} – {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}
= {0}

(iv) A = Set of all letters in the word “mathematics” and B = Set of all letters in the word “geometry”
Solution:
A = {m, a, t, h, e, i, c, s}
B = {g, e, o, m, t, r, y}
A∪B = {m, a, t, h, e, i, c, s} ∪ {g, e, o, m, t, r, y}
= {a, c, e, g, h, i, m, o, r, s, t, y}
A∩B= {m, a, t, h, e, i, c, s} ∩ {g, e, o, m, t, r, y}
= {e, m, t}
A – B = {m, a, t, h, e, i, c, 5} – {g, e, o, m, t, r, y}
= {a, c, h, i, s}
B -A = {g, e, o, m, t, r, y} – {m, a, t, h, e, i, c, s}
= {g, o, r, y}

Question 3.
If U = {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h), A = {b, d, f, h} and B = {a, d, e, h}, find the following sets.
(i) A’
Solution:
A’ = U – A
= {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h} – {b, d, f, h)
= {a, c, e, g}

(ii) B’
Solution:
B’ = U – B
= {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h} – {a, d, e, h}
= {b, c, f, g}

(iii) A’∪B’
Solution:
A’∪B’ = {a, c, e, g} ∪ {b, c,f, g}
= {a, b, c, e, f, g}

(iv) A’∩B’
Solution:
A’∩B’ = {a, c, e, g} ∩ {b, c, f, g}
= {c, g}

(v) (A∪B)’
Solution:
A∪B = {b, d, f, h} ∪ {a, d, e, h}
= {a, b, d, e, f, h}
(A∪B)’ = U – (A∪B)
= {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h} – {a, b, d, e, f, h}
= {c, g}

(vi) (A∩B)’
Solution:
(A∩B) = {b, d, f, h) ∩ {a, d, e, h)
= {d, h}
(A∩B)’ = U – (A∩B)
= {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h} – {d, h}
= {a, b, c, e, f, g}

(vii) (A’)’
Solution:
A’ = {a, c, e, g}
(A’)’ = U – A’
= {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h} – {a, c, e, g}
= {b, d, f, h}

(viii) (B’)’
Solution:
B’ = {b, c, f, g}
(B’)’ = U – B’
= {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h) – {b, c, f, g)
= {a, d, e, h}

Question 4.
Let U = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7} A = {1, 3, 5, 7} and B = {0, 2, 3, 5, 7}, find the following sets.
(i) A’
Solution:
A’ = U – A
= {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7} – {1, 3, 5, 7}
= {0, 2, 4, 6}

(ii) B’ = U – B
Solution:
= {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7} – {0, 2, 3, 5, 7}
= {1, 4, 6}

(iii) A’∪B’
Solution:
A’∪B’ = {0, 2, 4, 6,}∪{1, 4, 6}
{0, 1, 2, 4, 6}

(iv) A’∩B’
Solution:
A’∩B’ = {0, 2, 4, 6,}∩{1, 4, 6}
{4, 6}

(v) (A∪B)’
Solution:
A∪B = {1, 3, 5, 7}∪{0, 2, 3, 5, 7}
= {0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7}
(A∪B)’ = U – (A∪B)
{0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7} – {0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7}
{4, 6}

(vi) (A∩B)’
Solution:
(A∩B)= {1, 3, 5, 7}∩{0, 2, 3, 5, 7}
= {3, 5, 7}
(A∩B)’ = U – (A∩B)
= {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7} – {3, 5, 7}
= {0, 1, 2, 4, 6}

(vii) (A’)’
A’ = {0, 2, 4, 6}
(A’)’ = U – A’
= {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7} – {0, 2, 4, 6}
= {1, 3, 5, 7}

(viii) (B’)’
B’ = {1, 4, 6}
(B’)’ = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7} – {1, 4, 6}
= {0, 2, 3, 5, 7}

Question 5.
Find the symmetric difference between the following sets.
(i) P = {2, 3, 5, 7, 11} and Q = {1, 3, 5, 11}
Solution:
Use anyone of the formula to find A & B
AΔB = (A – B)∪(B – A) or AΔB = (A∪B) – (A∩B)
P∪Q = {2, 3, 5, 7, 11} ∪ {1,3,5, 11}
= {1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 11}
P∩Q = {2, 3, 5, 7, 11}∩{1, 3, 5,11}
= {3, 5, 11}
PΔQ = (P∪Q) – (P∩Q)
= {1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 11} – {3, 5, 11}
= {1, 2, 7}
(OR)
P – Q = {2, 3, 5, 7, 11} – {1, 3, 5, 11}
= {2,7}
Q – P = {1, 3, 5, 11} – {2, 3, 5, 7, 11}
= {1}
PΔQ = (P – Q)∪(Q – P)
= {2, 7} ∪ {1}
= {1, 2, 7}

(ii) R = {l, m, n, o, p} and S = {j, l, n, q}
Solution:
R- S = {l, m, n, o, p} – {j, l, n, q}
= {m, o, p}
S – R = {j, l, n, q} – {l, m, n, o, p}
= {j, q}
RΔS = (R – S)∪(S – R)
= {m, o, p} – {j, q} = {j, m, o, p, q)
(OR)
R∪S = {l, m, n, o, p} ∪ {j,l,n,q}
= {l, m, n, o, p, j, q}
R∩S = {l, m, n, o,p} ∩ {j, l, n, q}
= {l, n}
RΔS = (R∪S) – (R∩S)
= {l, m, n, o, p, j, q} – { l, n}
= {m, o, p, j, q}

(iii) X = {5, 6, 7} and Y = {5, 7, 9, 10}
Solution:
X∪Y = {5, 6, 7} ∪ {5, 7, 9, 10}
= {5 ,6, 7, 9, 10}
X∩Y = {5, 6, 7} ∩ {5, 7, 9, 10}
= {5, 7}
XΔY = (X∪Y) – (X∩Y)
= {5, 6, 7, 9, 10} – {5, 7}
= {6, 9, 10}
OR
X – Y = {5, 6, 7} – {5, 7, 9, 10} = {6}
Y – X = {5, 7, 9, 10} – {5, 6, 7} = {9, 10}
XΔY = (X – Y) ∪ (Y – X)
= {6}∪{9, 10}
= {6, 9, 10}

Question 6.
Using the set symbols, write down the expressions for the shaded region in the following

Solution:

Question 7.
Let A and B be two overlapping sets and the universal set U. Draw appropriate Venn diagram for each of the following,
(i) A∪B
(ii) A∩B
(iii) (A∩B)’
(iv) (B – A)’
(v) A’∪B’
(Vi) A’∩B’
(vii) What do you observe from the Venn diagram (iii) and (v)?
Solution:
(i) A∪B

(ii) A∩B

(iii) (A∩B)’

(iv) (B – A)’

(v) A’∪B’

(Vi) A’∩B’

(vii) What do you observe from the diagram (iii) and (v)?
From the diagram (iii) and (v) we get (A∩B)’ = A’∪B’