TN State Board 11th Commerce Important Questions Chapter 14 Transportation

Question 1.
Define transport.
Answer:
According to K.K. Sexena, “the transport system acts with reference to the area it serves in the same way as a candle does in a darkroom”.

Question 2.
State any two services rendered by transport.
Answer:

  1. It increases the efficiency of production.
  2. It stimulates wants by increasing quantity and variety of consumer goods.

Samacheer Kalvi TN Board 11th Commerce Important Questions Chapter 14 Transportation

Question 3.
Write any two advantages of water transport.
Answer:

  1. It is considered as the cheapest mode of transport among the other modes of transport.
  2. It is very much suitable to heavy loads.
  3. It is eminently suitable for the carriage of fragile goods like glassware, earth ware etc., without causing damage.

Question 4.
What is bill of lading?
Answer:
Bill of Lading is a document containing the terms and conditions of the contract of carriage. It is issued by the shipping company and signed by the captain of the ship. It acknowledges the receipt of the goods described in it on board the ship.

Question 5.
What is charter party?
Answer:
When goods are to be consigned in large quantity, it is advantageous to hire the whole – or substantial part of the ship. The document through which this contract is made is known as ‘Charter Party’ may also be known as ‘Voyage Charter’ or ‘Time Charter’.

Samacheer Kalvi TN Board 11th Commerce Important Questions Chapter 14 Transportation

Question 6.
Explain different types of transport.
Answer:
Surface Transport:
Transport of people and goods by land vehicles is known as Surface transport. It is also called as ‘Land Transport’.

(i)Pack Animals:
Animals like horse, mule, donkey camel, and elephant etc., are used for carrying small loads in backward areas, hilly tracks, forest regions and deserts known as pack animals.

(ii)Bullock Carts:
It constitutes the predominant form of rural road transport in India for goods traffic and to some extent for passengers’ traffic. It links up the villages with the nearby markets and railway stations.

(iii) Road Transport:
Road Transport is one of the most promising and potent means suitable for short and medium distances.

(iv) Motor Lorries and Buses:
From the dawn of civilization, people have been endeavoring to form roads and use wheeled vehicles to facilitate transport of men and materials. The credit of revolutionizing the road transport and introducing the elements of speed and greater carrying capacity into the system goes to motor lorries and buses.

(v) Tramways:
It made their appearance in the 19th century as a form of transport suitable for big cities. Tramways were initially horse drawn later steam-powered and now electrically operated. Its carrying capacity is large.

(vi) Railway Transport:
The invention of steam engine by James Watt, revolutionized the mode of transport all over the world. Railway, as a mode of transport is the most organized transport undertaking all over the world. Recent trends in Rail Transport. Metro Rail, Mono Rail, Bullet Transport.

(vii) Water Transport:
“Water is a free gift of nature’ Human civilization through gradual application of science and technology, h ave utilized water resources for economic, political and military activities. Remarkable. advancements are taking place in water transport due to considerable improvement in the construction* design motive power, speed and safety of ships and boats. Water transports are of two types:
(i) Inland waterways,
(ii) Ocean waterways.

(viii) Air Transport:
Air transport is the fastest and the costliest mode of transport. Commercial air transport is now one of the most prominent modes of overseas transport.

Samacheer Kalvi TN Board 11th Commerce Important Questions Chapter 14 Transportation

Question 7.
Discuss the advantages of transport.
Answer:
Advantages of Railways:

  • Railways are well suited for carrying heavy and bulky goods over long distances.
  • It can provide long distance travel throughout the day and night with unbroken services.
  • It can provide better production and safety to the goods than motor transport. The goods generally carried in closed wagons are not exposed to sun, rain etc.

Advantages of inland waterways:

  • It is considered as the cheapest mode of transport among the other modes of transport.
  • It carries goods smoothly due to the absence of shaking and jolting during transit. It is eminently suitable for the carriage of fragile goods like glassware, earth ware etc., without causing damage.
  • Initial investment on river services as well as expenditure on their maintenance is much lesser as compared to road and rail transport.

Advantages of Air Transport:

  • It provides a regular, convenient, efficient and quick service.
  • Perishable goods like fruits, vegetables, egg, meat, etc., can be transported quickly.
  • It does not require huge investment for construction and maintenance of track like railways.
  • They provide comfortable services for passengers and safety for their goods.

Land Transport: Advantage (Pack Animals)

  • Pack Animals cheap means of transport.
  • Low cost of maintenance.

Bullock carts:

  • It is suitable for rural roads.
  • The cart .is locally made with local materials.

Motor trucks:

  • It can reach the interior and remote villages.
  • It is very well suited for short distance traffic.

Samacheer Kalvi TN Board 11th Commerce Important Questions Chapter 14 Transportation

Question 8.
Geographical separation between producer and consumer – Comment. Importing Crude oil from foreign country to Petroleum refineries – transporting through Truck tankers or Pipelines – Suggest with reason.
Answer:
Goods are produced at a few places but are required for use at different places. Geographical distance separate producers and consumers. This difficulty is removed by transport, eg: Knitwear products of Tirupur are sold throughout the world, Nellore rice is widely consumed in Chennai and other places with the help of various means of transport.

Import crude oil from foreign countries to petroleum refineries transporting through truck tankers is good. These tankers are specially designed for to carry crude oil, petrol and petroleum products, but pipelines sometimes suggested it is good because lesser cost.

Samacheer Kalvi TN Board 11th Commerce Important Questions Chapter 14 Transportation

Choose the Correct Answer:

Question 1.
Transport removes the hindrance of:
(a) time
(b) place
(c) person
(d) knowledge
Answer:
(b) place

Question 2.
Air consignment note is prepared in ______ forms.
(a) one
(b) two
(c) three
(d) four
Answer:
(c) three

Question 3.
_______ is a document acknowledging the receipt of goods by a carrier.
(a) Waybill
(b) Consignment note
(c) Charter
(d) Bill of lading
Answer:
(a) Waybill

Question 4.
Which is the fastest means of transport?
(a) Rail
(b) Road
(c) Sea
(d) Air
Answer:
(d) Air

Samacheer Kalvi TN Board 11th Commerce Important Questions Chapter 14 Transportation

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Commerce Notes Chapter 14 Transportation

→ Movement of men and materials from one place to another is very indispensable carrying for out economic activities. Transport refers to such movement of men and materials from place to place transport enables the transfer of goods and services from the places of their origin to the places of their demand.

→ Thus transport helps the transformation of the structure of the economy. An economy which remained essentially rural in character gets quickly transformed an urban or semi urban economy thanks to better transport facilities.

→ The maximization of human satisfaction and economic welfare are the cordinal objectives of a modem welfare state. It is therefore essential that the scarce resources, which have alternate uses, must flow uninterruptedly and continuously transport eliminates the barriers among different countries, different places and region.

TN Board 11th Commerce Important Questions

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