TN State Board 11th Commerce Important Questions Chapter 27 Facilitators of International Business
What is WTO?
The World Trade Organisation (WTO) was established on 1st January 1995. The GATT was renamed as WTO with some changes. WTO has 164 member countries as on 29th July 2016. India is one of the three founder members.
What do you mean by World Bank?
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) International Bank for Reconstruction and Development is commonly known as World Bank. It was set up in 1944.
What is Special Drawing Rights?
Special Drawing Rights was created by the IMF in the year 1969 as supplementary international Asset. It is described as paper gold.
What is SAARC?
South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation is the regional intergovernmental organization and geo-political union of nations in South Asia. The member countries include Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Srilanka, Pakistan and Maldives. It was established on 8th December 1985. It was founded at Dhaka in Bangladesh.
What is GATT?
- GATT is one of the mechanism for regulating controlling trade relation across the countries around the world.
- GATT was signed Geneva on 30th October 1947 by23 countries. It came into effect on 1 January 1948. It had rules and regulation for conducting international trade.
What is the primary motive of establishment of WTO?
- The World Trade Organisation (WTO) was established on 1st January 1955. The GATT was renamed as WTO with some changes. WTO has 164 member countries as on 29th July 2016.
- India is one of the three founder members.
- It is empowered to take decisions on all vital matters under the multilateral trade agreements.
- The day to day work of WTO has been entrusted to the central council. WTO is located at Geneva [Switzerland].
Name the affiliate of World Bank.
- International Development Association (IDA).
- International Financial Corporation (IFC).
- Multinational Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA).
- International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID).
What are the criticisms of World Bapk?
- Free trade benefits developed countries more than developing countries.
- Neglect Environmental consideration most favoured nation principles.
- Neglect of cultural and social factors.
- Failure to reduce tariffs on agriculture inability of people in developing countries to buy life saving drugs.
- Neglect of farmers interest in developing countries.
How is the value of SDR determined currently?
- SDR was created by the IMF in the year 1969 as supplementary international reserve asset.
- It is described as paper gold.
- Initially the value of SDR was fixed to be 0.888671 grams of fine gold equivalent to one US dollar till the year 1973.
- After the collapse of Britten Wood system in 1973 SDR was redefined as basket of currencies.
- From 1st October 2016 SDR basket consists of US dollar, Euro, the Chinese Renminbi, Japanese Yen and British Pound sterling.
- The value of SDR is regularly posted daily in IMF website.
- It is calculated as the sum of specific amount of each basket currency value is US dollar based On the spot exchange rates observed at noon London time.
- IMF allocates SDR to member countries in proportion to their quota. IMF member can exchange SDR for freely usable currencies by voluntary exchange or as per IMF instructions.
- Besides members can borrow from IMF at favourable rate of interest to correct imbalance in balance of payments.
Mention the functions of SAARC.
Functions of SAARC are highlighted.
- Monitoring and co-ordinating the development programme.
- Determining inter-sectoral priorities.
- Mobilizing cooperation within and outside the region.
- Dealing with modalities of financing.
Point out the objectives of WTO.
- Improving the standard of living of people in member countries.
- Making optimum utilization of world’s resources for sustainable development of member countries.
- Promoting an integrated more viable and durable trading system in the sphere of international business.
- Expansion of trade in goods and services.
- Ensuring full employment and large steady growth volume of real income and effective demand.
- Protecting the environment.
Write down the functions of WTO.
WTO performs the following functions:
- It is a forum for negotiation and formalization of trade agreement among the member countries.
- It settles disputes and grievances relating to trade among the member countries.
- It frames commonly acceptable code of conduct in order to reduce trade barriers.
- It holds consultations with IMF and World Bank (IBRD) and its affiliates to bring about a greater understanding and co-operation in global economic policy making.
- It supervises the operations of agreement relating to General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and Trade-Related Intellectual Properties Rights (TRIPS).
- It regulates trade between participating countries.
Describe the benefits of WTO.
(i) WTO is promoting international peace and creating .a conductive environment for conducting international trade.
(ii) It settles the trade disputes amicably among the member countries.
(iii) It promotes the standard of living of people by increasing their income level from free trades.
(iv) WTO has removed quantitative restrictions and non-tariff barriers. It has facilitated free flow of foreign trade among the member countries. The countries can impose import restrictions only to correct balance of payments difficulties and not otherwise.
(v) It stimulates economic growth of developing countries by providing them with much needed capital and giving them preferential treatment in trade related matters.
(vi) WTO organizes periodical regional and international conference. Thus developing countries get opportunity to learn the technicalities, rules and regulations governing world trade, technical assistance available globally, trade potentials in member countries and so on.
(vii) WTO gives people across the world a wider choice of goods and broader range of qualities of goods to choose from by promoting free trade among the member countries.
(viii) WTO has lowered trade barriers and thereby allowed trade to flourish across the world. The increase in trade contributes to increase in national income and personal income of people.
(ix) WTO provides a platform for member countries to establish trade links with one another. In the absence of WTO member countries may have to enter many multilateral agreement with so many countries across the world. It provides a greater access to all natiohs under one roof.
(x) WTO is committed to protecting free trade. It has framed rules on subsidies and dumping.
Highlights the functions of IBRD.
- Assisting reconstruction of war-affected countries.
- Promoting economic growth and balanced growth of international business.
- Promoting infrastructural facilities like energy and transportation, road development, etc. in member countries.
- Encouraging agricultural and industrial development in developing countries by providing adequate resources.
- Providing resources for promoting sanitation, education, health care and small scale enterprises in member countries.
- Improving standard of living of people of member countries by providing assistance by removing poverty, raising productivity, providing technical support and conducting research and development.
Write down the functions of IMF.
- It acts as short term credit institution at the international level.
- It provides machinery for ordinary adjustments of exchange rates.
- It has a reservoir of currencies of the member countries from which a borrower can borrow currencies of other nations.
- It promotes economic stability and global growth by encouraging countries adopt sound economic and financial policies.
- It offers technical assistance and .training . to help member countries strengthen and implement effective policies. Technical assistance, is offered in formulating banking, fiscal, monetary and exchange policies.
- It helps member countries correct their imbalance in balance of payment.
Explain how far India has benefited from IMF.
Free Convertibility of Indian Rupee:
Indian rupee has become independent after the establishment of IMF. Earlier it was linked with pound sterling. Its value is now determined in terms of Gold. Hence it is freely convertible.
(i) Loan For Development Activities:
India got several loan facilities from IMF for its several development projects.
(ii) Ability To Purchase Foreign Currency:
Government of India is able to purchase foreign currencies from time to time to meet the ever growing requirement of development activities.
(iii) Expert Advice:
India used to get expert advice from IMF for solving the economic problems. It has given valuable advice to India with regard to financing its 5 year plan.
(iv) Timely Help:
India has received timely help from IMF many a time to eliminate the deficit in its balance of payments. India got help from IMF during 1966 in the aftermath of war with Pakistan. It received assistance from IMF for combating oil shock. Between 1980 and 1983 India got assistance from IMF to manage global economic recession.
(v) Financial Assistance during Natural Calamity:
India has got a lot of financial assistance from IMF to solve the economic crises arising from natural calamities like, floods, famine, earthquake, aggressions of Chinese and Pakistan etc. It gets technical assistance from IMF.
(vi) Membership in World Bank:
By virtue of its membership in IMF India could become member in the World Bank.
(vii) Help During 1991 Economic Crisis:
During1990, India faced serious economic crisis. Indian Government was almost nearing bankruptcy. It got assistance from IMF by pledging its gold reserve with it’to solve its balance of payments crisis.
A vital role played in international business by WTO.
World Trade Organisation (WTO) is the only global international organisation dealing with the rules of trade between nations.
Necessity for world as global village through IMF, IBRD and SAARC.
- It acts as short term credit institution at the intemationallevel.
- Promoting the welfare of people of Asia.
WTO- new agreements.
Its main aim is to ensure smooth flow of goods trade. World organisation was established on 1st January 1993. The GATT was renamed as WTO with some changes WTO has 164 member countries as on 29th July 2016.
IMF World Bank and SAARC major role in international business.
- Monitoring and co-ordinating the development programme.
- Dealing with modelities of financing.
- World Bank: Providing long term loans to developing countries.
- IMF: It works for faster global growth.
Choose the Correct Answer:
General Agreement on Tariff and Trade was signed on:
WTO was established on:
The headquarter of WTO is located at:
(a) New York
The day to day administration of WTO is entrusted with:
(a) Executive Council
(b) General Council
(c) Administrative Council
(d) General Body
(b) General Council
World bank is located at:
(a) Washington DC
(b) New York
(a) Washington DC
Samacheer Kalvi 11th Commerce Notes Chapter 27 Facilitators of International Business
→ World trade organisation: International business involved complex issues among various countries way back 1950’s. A keen need then was felt to establish separate ipechanism for regulating and controlling trade relation across the countries around the world.
→ As a result, the general agreement on tariffs and trade. [GATT] was signed at Geneva on 30th October 1947 by 23 countries. It came into effect on 1st January 1948. GATT was a multilateral treaty. It laid down rules and regulations for conducting international trade.
→ GATT achieved many success but various countries felt the need to create a new international body to replace the GATT. The GATT which remained in force from 1948 to 1994. Thus came to an end with the establishment of world trade organisation [WTO] on 1st January 1995.
→ The day to day work of WTO has been entrusted to the general council. WTO is located at Geneva [Switzerland].