Samacheer Kalvi 7th Maths Guide Book Answers Solutions

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Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science Guide Book Answers Solutions

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Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Guide Book Answers Solutions

Subject Matter Experts at SamacheerKalvi.Guide have created Tamil Nadu State Board Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Book Answers Solutions Guide Pdf Free Download of Term 1, 2, 3 in English Medium and Tamil Medium are part of Samacheer Kalvi 7th Books Solutions.

Let us look at these TN State Board New Syllabus Samacheer Kalvi 7th Std Science Guide Pdf of Text Book Back Questions and Answers Term 1, 2, 3, Chapter Wise Important Questions, Study Material, Question Bank, Notes, and revise our understanding of the subject.

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Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science Guide Civics Term 3 Chapter 2 Market and Consumer Protection

Tamilnadu State Board New Syllabus Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science Guide Pdf Civics Term 3 Chapter 2 Market and Consumer Protection Text Book Back Questions and Answers, Notes.

Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science Solutions Civics Term 3 Chapter 2 Market and Consumer Protection

7th Social Science Guide Market and Consumer Protection Text Book Back Questions and Answers

Question 1.
In which case a consumer cannot complain against the manufacturer for a defective product?
a) Date of expiry unspecified
b) Price of the commodity
c) Batch number of the commodity
c) Batch number of the commodity

Question 2.
Consumer’s face various problems from the producer’s end due to
b) Wide range of goods
c) Standard quality goods
d) Volume of production

Question 3.
Consumers must be provided with adequate information about a product to make
a) Investment in production
b) Decision in sale of goods
c) Credit purchase of goods
d) Decision in purchase of goods
d) Decision in purchase of goods

Question 4.
The system of consumer courts at the national, state, and district levels, looking into consumers grievances against unfair trade practices of businessmen and providing necessary compensation, is called as
a) Three tier system
b) One tier system
c) Two tier system
d) Four tier system
a) Three tier system

Question 5.
Mixing other extraneous material of inferior quality with a superior quality material is called
a) Purification
c) Refinement
d) Alteration

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. A set up where two or more parties engage in …………… of goods, services and information is called a market.

2. In regulated Markets, there is some oversight by appropriate ………………. authorities.
government

3. …………… refers to a market structure in which there is a single producer or seller that has a control on
the entire market.
Monopoly

4. ……………… statue is regarded as the ‘Magna Carta’ in the field of consumer protection for checking
COPRA

III. Match the following:

 A B 1. The Consumer Protection Act a) 1955 2. The Legal Metrology Act b) 1986 3. The Bureau of Indian Standards c) 2009 4. The Essential Commodities Act d) 1986

 A B 1. The Consumer Protection Act c) 2009 2. The Legal Metrology Act b) 1986 3. The Bureau of Indian Standards d) 1986 4. The Essential Commodities Act a) 1955

IV. Consider the following statements:

Question 1.
Assertion (A) : In local Markets the buyers and sellers are limited to the local region or area.
Reason (R) : A market is not restricted to one physical or geographical location.
a) Both, A and R, are true and R is the correct explanation of A
b) Both, A and R, are true but R is not the correct explanation of A
c) If A is true but R is false
d) If A is false but R is true
b) Both, A and R, are true but R is not the correct explanation of A

Question 1.
What is the market?
A setup where two or more parties are engaged in an exchange of goods, services, and information is called a market.

Question 2.
Describe consumer protection.

• Consumer protection is a group of laws enacted to protect the rights of consumers, fairtrade, competition, and accurate information in the marketplace.
• This Act was enacted in 1986 in the Parliament of India to protect the interests of consumers.

Question 3.
List out the rights of consumers.

1. The Right to Basic Needs.
2. The Right to Safety.
3. The Right to Information.
4. The Right to Choose.
5. The Right to representation.
6. The Right to Redress.
7. The Right to Consumer Education.
8. The Right to a Healthy Environment.

Question 4.
Discuss the role of consumer courts.
Consumer courts in India:

National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission (NCDRC):

• A national-level court works for the whole country and deals compensation claimed exceeds rupees one crore.
• The National Commission is the Apex body of Consumer Courts; it is also the highest appellate court in the hierarchy.

The National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission (NCDRC),

• It is a quasi-judicial commission in India which was set up in 1988 under the Consumer Protection Act of 1986.
• Its head office is in New Delhi.

State Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission (SCDRC):
A state-level court works at the state level with cases where compensation claimed is above 20 lakhs but up to one core.

District Consumer Disputes Redressal Forum (DCDRF):
A district-level court works at the district level with cases where the compensation claimed is up to 20 lakhs.

Question 5.
Write about the types of markets and their functions.
On the Basis of Geographic Location:

1. Local Markets: In such a market the buyers and sellers are limited to the local region or area.
2. Regional Markets: These markets cover a wider are than local markets like a district, or a cluster of few smaller states
3. National Market: This is when the demand for the goods is limited to one specific country. Or the government may not allow the trade of such goods outside national boundaries.
4. International Market: When the demand for the product is international and the goods are also traded internationally in bulk quantities, we call it an international market.

On the Basis of Time:

1. Very Short Period Market: This is when the supply of the goods is fixed, and so it cannot be changed instantaneously. For example the market for flowers, vegetables. Fruits etc.
2. Short Period Market: The market is slightly longer than the previous one. Here the supply can be slightly adjusted. Example: The demand of fish, milk or egg,
3. Long Period Market: Here the supply can be changed easily by scaling production. So it can change according to the demand of the market.

On the Basis of Nature of Transaction

1. Spot Market: This is where spot transactions occur, that is the money is paid immediately. There is no system of credit.
2. Future Market: This is where the transactions are credit transactions. There is a promise to pay the consideration sometime in the future.

On the Basis of Regulation:

1. Regulated Market: In such a market there is some oversight by appropriate government authorities. For example, the stock market is a highly regulated market.
2. Unregulated Market: This is an absolutely free market. There is no oversight or regulation, the market forces decide everything.

On the basis of Nature of competition:

1. Monopoly: Monopoly refers to a market structure in which there is a single producer or seller that has control over the entire market. This single seller deals in products that have no close substitutes.
2. Monopolistic Competition: Monopolistic competition refers to a market situation in which there are a large number of buyers and sellers of products.

7th Social Science Guide Market and Consumer Protection Additional Important Questions and Answers

Question 1.
……………. is where the transactions are credit transactions.
a) Future Market
b) Local Market
c) Regional Market
d) National Market
a) Future Market

Question 2.
The term oligopoly has been derived from two …………….. words.
a) Arabic
b) Greek
c) Tamil
d) none
b) Greek

Question 3.
The COPRA Consumer Protection Act enacted in ……………… in the Parliament of India to protect the interests of consumers.
a) 1933
b) 1986
c) 1968
d) 1965
b) 1986

Question 4.
The COPRA was passed in Assembly in …………….
a) November 1988
b) October 1986
c) October 1968
d) December 1976
b) October 1986

Question 5.
Indian Parliament passed the landmark Consumer Protection Bill in ……………..
a) November 1988
b) October 2018
c) October 2019
d) August 2019
d) August 2019

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. In …………., the buyers and sellers are limited to the local region or area.
Local Markets

2. …………….. covers a wider area than local markets like a district, or a cluster of few smaller states.
Regional Markets

3. ………….. is the demand for the goods is limited to one specific country.
National Market

4. When the demand for the product is international and the goods are also traded internationally in bulk quantities, is called as ……………..
international market

5. There is no system of credit in ………………
Spot market

6. ……………….. is a highly regulated market
Regulated Market

7. …………….. refers to a market structure.
Monopoly

8. TRAI means ……………
Ans:
Telecom Regulatory Authority of India.

9. IRDAI means ……………….
Insurance – Regulatory and Development Authority of India

10. The Bureau of Indian Standards Act was passed in …………………..
1986

III. Match the following:

 A B 1. Local market a) exceeds one crore 2. Spot market b) no credit system 3. Oligopoly c) 2009 4. NCDRC d) perishable goods 5. The Legal Metrology e) Market form

 A B 1. Local market d) perishable goods 2. Spot market b) no credit system 3. Oligopoly e) Market form 4. NCDRC a) exceeds one crore 5. The Legal Metrology c) 2009

Question 1.
Who is a Consumer?
A Consumer is a person who purchases a product or avails a service for a consideration, either for his personal use or to earn his livelihood by means of self-employment.

Question 2.
Write the rules of Unfair Trade Practice.

• “Goods once sold will not be taken back”
• “No exchange”
• “No refund under any circumstances”

Question 3.
Write down the highlights of the Consumer Protection Act.

• E-Commerce Transactions
• Enhancement of Pecuniary Jurisdiction
• E-Filing of complaints

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science Guide Civics Term 3 Chapter 3 Road Safety

Tamilnadu State Board New Syllabus Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science Guide Pdf Geography Term 3 Chapter 3 Road Safety Text Book Back Questions and Answers, Notes.

Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science Solutions Geography Term 3 Chapter 3 Road Safety

7th Social Science Guide Road Safety Text Book Back Questions and Answers

Question 1.
a) Passersby
b) drivers
c) public

Question 2.
a) improvement
b) life
c) finance
d) all the above
d) all the above

Question 3.
Permit refers to
a) permission for driving
b) permission for carrying goods
c) certificate for drivers
d) registration of vehicles
a) permission for driving

Question 4.
Raksha safe drive is a device useful for
a) pedestrians
b) motorists
c) car drivers
d) passengers
c) car drivers

Question 5.
Road safety week celebration was first imitated in India in the year
a) 1947
b) 1989
c) 1990
d) 2019
b) 1989

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. The most useful invention of man for transport is ………………….
wheel

2. Using …………………. is inevitable in our journey of life.
Helmet

3. Too many vehicles on the road cause …………………. and …………………. pollution.
Air, Noise

4. …………………. is the monetary supporter of a family.

5. In case of emergency for medical assistance call …………………. for help.
108

III. Match the following:

 A B 1. Informatory sign a) Traffic lights 2. The Legal Metrology Act b) Narrow bend sign 3. Mandatory sign c) Petrol pump sign 4. Cautionary sign d) License 5. Right to drive a vehicle e) walkers

 A B 1. Informatory sign c) Petrol pump sign 2. The Legal Metrology Act e) walkers 3. Mandatory sign a) Traffic lights 4. Cautionary sign b) Narrow bend sign 5. Right to drive a vehicle d) License

IV. Consider the following statements:

Question 1.
Assertion (A) : Car pooling is the use of vehicles by turns. Reason (R) : It saves fuel, time and money and also.
a) A is correct and R is not correct
b) A is correct and R is also correct
c) A is wrong and R is correct
d) Both are wrong
c) A is wrong and R is correct

Question 2.
Find the odd one
a) car
b) trucks
c) tempos
d) aeroplanes
d) aeroplanes

Question 3.
Consider the following statements and choose the correct answer from the codes given below.

a) Road safety education in the school curriculum is an additional burden for the students.
False

b) An ounce of practice is worth more than tons of preaching.
True

c) Hoarding on roads has to be banned.
True

d) Following road safety rules from childhood will become a habit in future.
True

V. Answer in one or two sentences:

Question 1.
What are the distractors while driving?

• This is a larger threat and the leading cause of road accidents.
• It is the distraction of the driver, engaging in any other activity while driving.
• It may be talking over the mobile phone or texting messages or engaging in any activities with attention diverted from driving.

Question 2.
Mention the 2 safety gears for safe driving.

• Obey the traffic rules and signs.
• Keep vehicle fit.

Question 3.
Why is not safe to drive at night?

• Extra alertness is needed while driving at night.
• Uncontrolled sleep, tiredness due to the long drive, poor lighting on the road can cause fatal accidents.

Question 4.
When can a person obtain the night to drive a vehicle?
As per Indian law, one should be eligible to get a driving license at the age of 18.

Question 5.
How can media promote road safety among the public?
Mass media and journals could play a key role to raise awareness of road safety. In particular, they can disseminate preventive messages and promote safe behaviours, increase people’s knowledge and understanding of the gravity of the problem, and advocate for safer roads and systems.

VI. Answer the following in detail:

Question 1.
List out the documents necessary for an Indian while driving.
One who drives a vehicle should have undergone the training and tests to obtain a driving license.
It is compulsory to have the following documents:

• registration certificate of the vehicle
• Insurance certificate
• Taxation certificate
• fitness certificate and permit.

Question 2.
What is the need for including road safety education in the school curriculum?

• Provide Road Safety education since childhood.
• It has to be made a part of the school curriculum, syllabus, textbook and included in competition on road safety.
• Activities like writing slogans, essays, and paintings on this theme should be conducted for reinforcement.

Question 3.
How can parents teach their children road safety rules?

• Parents and Teachers play a vital role in imparting road safety Education to young ones.
• If a child’s parent violates the traffic rules, the child too will initiate the same in the future.
• So the elders have to set an example for them in adhering to the safety rules and regulations.
• Video and computer games that simulate driving should be banned by the government.
• Warn them not to run across or along the road.
• Teach them to use the footpath while walking on the road.

HOTs:

Question 1.
Knowing the road safety rules, how will you influence your parents and relatives?

1. We will educate parents on following road safety rules.
2. Explain the risk of not wearing a helmet.
3. We will insist our parents wear a seat belt while driving a car.
4. We will tell them not to exceed the speed limit while riding or driving.

Question 2.
If the wheel had not been invented, what might have been our mode of transport?

• If the wheel had not been invented, there is a need for road transport.
• Walking would have been the only mode of transport.

Question 1
……………….. is the world’s largest contributor to road accidents.
a) China
b) India
c) Africa
d) none
b) India

Question 2.
a) 50%
b) 70%
c) 10%
d) 20%
c) 10%

Question 3.
……………….. failure can result in crucial collisions.
a) Brake
b) Accelerator
c) Gear
d) all of these
a) Brake

Question 4.
The Government of India observes; Road Safety Week; awareness during ……………….. Every year.
a) December
b) January
c) November
d) none
b) January

Question 5.
Every country celebrates ……………….. week.
c) Regulation
d) Traffic Signs

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. Accident occurs to the ……………….. of the driver, engaging in any other activity while driving.
distraction

2. ……………….. is a major traffic violation of rules.
Reckless driving

3. Increase of ……………….. on the road create a heavy traffic jam and cause more pollution.
vehicles
4. Impatience of ……………….. and violation of traffic rules result in accidents.
Pedestrians

5. Avoiding the use of ……………….. for two-wheelers lead to unwanted happenings.
helmets

6. ……………….. is a device capable of automatic crash detection.
Raksha safe drive

7. ……………….. will reduce the number of vehicles on the road.
Carpooling

8. Parents and Teachers play a vital role in imparting road safety Education ………………..
young ones

9. ……………….. is a healthy habit and reduces pollution.
Cycling

10. ……………….. act as silent conductors of the traffic on the road.
Traffic signs

III. Match the following

 A B 1. Night driving a) Safe instrument 2. Driving license b) Loss their Stability 3. Raksha drive c) Road safety week 4. Drinking alcohol d) tiredness 5. January month e) Age 18

 A B 1. Night driving d) tiredness 2. Driving license e) Age 18 3. Raksha drive a) Safe instrument 4. Drinking alcohol b) Loss their Stability 5. January month c) Road safety week

IV. Consider the following statements:

Question 1.
Assertion (A) : Reckless driving is a major traffic violation of rules.
Reason (R) : In which the driver Purposely disregards the rules of the road.
a) A is correct and R is not correct
b) A is correct and R is also correct
c) A is wrong and R is correct
d) Both are wrong
b) A is correct and R is also correct

Question 2.
Find the odd one.
a) STOP OR SLOW DOWN
b) BUCKLE UP
c) WEAR HELMET
d) KEEP VEHICLES FIT
e) PROHIBITION the hoarding soil
e) PROHIBITION the hoarding soil

V. Answer in one or two sentences :

Question 1.
Define Raksha safe drive.
Raksha safe drive is a device capable of automatic crash detection, two-way call connectivity, GPS tracking, engine health monitoring, and a smart panic button.

Question 2.
Write short notes on Carpooling.
Carpooling is the sharing of car journeys so that more than one person travels in the car, and prevents the need for more cars to the same location.

Question 3.
Write the impact of Alcohol.

• Alcohol leads to fatal accidents.
• Alcohol affects your vision, judgment, and ability to react quickly.

VI. Answer the following in detail:

Question 1.
Explain the Golden Rules for Road Safety.

• Stop or slow down
• Buckle up
• Obey traffic rules and signs
• Obey speed limits
• Keep vehicle fit
• Never use mobile while driving
• Wear helmet
• Never drive dangerously
• Be courteous
• Never mix drinking and driving.

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science Guide Civics Term 3 Chapter 1 Women Empowerment

Tamilnadu State Board New Syllabus Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science Guide Pdf Civics Term 3 Chapter 1 Women Empowerment Text Book Back Questions and Answers, Notes.

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7th Social Science Guide Women Empowerment Text Book Back Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Which of the following is NOT a consequence of gender inequality?
a) Poor maternal health
b) Greater insecurity for men
d) Lower literacy rates for women

Question 2.
Gender equality is an issue that is relevant to
a) Girls and women; it’s a women’s issue
b) All societies, women and men alike
c) Third world countries only
d) Developed Countries only
b) All societies, women and men alike

Question 3.
Which of the following strategies will help women become more socially and economically empowered?
a) Women working together to challenge discrimination
b) More income sources for women
d) All of the above
d) All of the above

Question 4.
Why are girls more likely than boys to miss out on secondary education in the developing world?
a) Because of high school fees, only boys are sent to school
b) Girls are expected to help out at home
c) Child Marriage restricts girls mobility and freedom
d) All of the above
d) All of the above

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. Jyotirao Phule is remembered as the champion of women’s education in India. He, along with his wife ………….., opened the first school for girls in 1848.
Savitribai Phule

2. ………………… is the First Woman to hold a Union Foreign Minister’s post.
Sushma Swaraj

3. ………………… is the first Woman Director General of Police (DGP).
Kanchan Chaudhary Bhattacharya

4. …….. is the first Indian Woman to win Booker.
Arundhati Roy

III. Match the following:

 A B 1. Sirimavo Bandaranaike a) England 2. Valentina Tereshkova b) Japan 3. Junko Tabei c) Sri Lanka 4. Charlotte Cooper d) USSR

 A B 1. Sirimavo Bandaranaike c) Sri Lanka 2. Valentina Tereshkova d) USSR 3. Junko Tabei b) Japan 4. Charlotte Cooper a) England

IV. Consider the following statements:

Question 1.
Assertion (A): Now women are being integrated at all steps of humanitarian operations.
Reason (R): Women and girls suffer the most from any kind of conflict in society.
a) Both A and R, are true and R is the correct explanation of A
b)Both A and R, are true but R is not the correct explanation of A
c) If A is true but R is false
d)If A is false but R is true
a) Both A and R, are true and R is the correct explanation of A

Question 2.
Assertion: Violence against women cuts across caste, class, religion, age, and even education.
Reason: Domestic violence is manifested in the form of foeticide, infanticide, dowry murder, marital cruelty, battering, child abuse, etc.
a) Both A and R, are true and R is the correct explanation of A
b) Both A and R, are true but R is not the correct explanation of A
c) If A is true but R is false
d) If A is false but R is true
b) Both A and R, are true but R is not the correct explanation of A

Question 1.
Discuss various roles played by women in Society.
The women have the ability to face any kind of challenges in society.
The roles of women are:

• Daughter,
• Student,
• Life partner,
• Mother,
• Good employee,
• Grandmother.

Question 2.
What is gender equality?
Gender equality is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision-making; and the state of valuing different behaviors, aspirations, and needs equally, regardless of gender.

Question 3.
Explain the woman’s rights.

• Women’s rights are the fundamental human rights that were enshrined by the United Nations for every human being on the planet nearly 70 years ago.
• These rights include the right to live free from violence, slavery, and discrimination; to be educated; to own property; to vote; to earn a fair and equal wage.

Question 4.
List out the essential factors of woman empowerment.
The essential factors for empowerment are:
1. Education:
Education gives one the ability to think wisely and make thoughtful decisions.

2. Gender Discrimination:
A Society which discriminates between the two genders can never be empowered.

3. Discrimination based on caste, creed, religion, etc.

Question 5.
Write an essay on the importance of a woman’s education.
1. Increased Literacy:
Of the illiterate youth across the globe, nearly 63 percent are female. Offering all children education will prop up literacy rates, pushing forward development in struggling regions.

2. Human Trafficking:
Women are most vulnerable to trafficking when they are undereducated and poor, according to the United Nations Inter-Agency Project on Human Trafficking.

3. Political Representation:
Across the globe, women are underrepresented as voters and restricted from political involvement.

4. Thriving Babies:
According to the United Nations Girls.’ Education Initiative, children of educated mothers are twice as likely to survive past the age of five.

5. Later Marriage:
As suggested by the United Nations Population Fund, in underdeveloped countries, one in every three girls is married before reaching the age of 18.

6. Income Potential:
Education also, increases a woman’s earning capabilities.

7. Prospering GDP:

• Gross Domestic Product also rises when both girls and boys are being offered educational opportunities.
• When 10 percent more women attend school, GDP increases by three percent on average.

8. Poverty Reduction:
When women are provided with equal rights and equal access to education, they go on to participate in economic activity.

Question 1.
…………….gives one the ability to think wisely and make thoughtful decisions.
a) Education
b) Gender
c) Discrimination
d) none
a) Education

Question 2.
More than …………… years ago, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights asserted that
everyone has the “right to education”.
a) 60
b) 40
c) 20
d) 45
b) 40

Question 3.
Of the illiterate youth across the globe, nearly ……………… percent are female.
a) 53
b) 63
c) 60
d) 66
b)63

Question 4.
As suggested by the United Nations Population Fund, in underdeveloped countries, one
in every three girls is married before reaching the age of …………..
a) 18
b) 28
c) 16
d) 28
a) 18

Question 5.
……………..was the first female teacher in the first girl’s school.
a) Savitribai Phule
b) Jyotirao Phule
c) Meira Kumar
d) Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit
a) Savitribai Phule

Question 6.
Jyotirao Phule along with his wife Savitribai Phule opened the first school for girls in …………….
a) 1848
b) 1826
c) 1866
d) 1836
a) 1848

Question 7.
Maharshi Karve starts First Women’s University, ie, SNDT University in Pune with five students in the year ……………….
a) 1966
b) 1926
c) 1916
d) 1936
c) 1916

Question 8.
The First Women Prime Minister of India was …………..
a) Indira Gandhi
b) Jyotirao Phule
c) Meira Kumar
d) Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit
a) Indira Gandhi

Question 9.
The First Women President of UN General Assembly was ……………..
a) Savitribai Phule
b) Jyotirao Phule
c) Meira Kumar
d) Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit
d) Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit

Question 10.
The First woman Finance Minister of India was …………………………
a) Sushma Swaraj
b) Nirmala Sitharaman
c) Prathpa Patel
d) Indira Gandhi
b) Nirmala Sitharaman

II Fill in the blanks:

1. You educate a woman; you educate a ……………..
generation

2. ………..is the biological trait that societies use to assign people into the category of either male or female.
Sex

3. …………..is the biological trait.
Sex

4. Women are most vulnerable to trafficking when they are undereducated and poor, according to the United Nations Inter-Agency Project on ……………….
Human Trafficking

5. ……………… are underrepresented as voters.
Women

6. UNESCO stands for United Nations ……………… Scientific and Cultural Organisation.
Educational

7. Jyotirao Phule along with his wife ……………., opened the first school for girls in 1848.
Savitribai Phule

8. ………………..from England is the first women to win the Olympic gold.
Charlotte Cooper

9. The First Indian Women to win the Booker Prize is ……………. in 1997.
Arundhati Roy

10. The First Women Speaker of LokSabha is ……………. in 2009.
Meira Kumar

III. Match the following:

 A B 1. Gender a) Sucheta Kripalani 2. First women in Space b) 1848 3. First women Governor c) never be empowered 4. First women School d) Pune 5. First women university e) Valentina Tereshkova

 A B 1. Gender c) never be empowered 2. First women in Space e) Valentina Tereshkova 3. First women Governor a) Sucheta Kripalani 4. First women School b) 1848 5. First women university d) Pune

Question 1.
What is Sociology?
The sociology of gender examines how society influences our understandings and perception of differences between masculinity and femininity.

Question 2.
Write a short note on Savitribai Phule.

• Savitribai Phule as a tradition breaker, the first female teacher at the first girls’ school.
• Her Husband, Jyotirao Phule is remembered as the champion of women’s education in India.
• Jyotirao Phule along with his wife Savitribai Phule opened the first school for girls in 1848

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science Guide Economics Term 3 Chapter 1 Tax and its Importance

Tamilnadu State Board New Syllabus Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science Guide Pdf Economics Term 3 Chapter 1 Tax and its Importance Text Book Back Questions and Answers, Notes.

Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science Solutions Economics Term 3 Chapter 1 Tax and its Importance

7th Social Science Guide Tax and its Importance Text Book Back Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Taxes are ………………. payment.
a) Voluntary
b) Compulsory
c) a&b
d) None of the above
b) Compulsory

Question 2.
Minimum possible amount should be spent in the collection of taxes is
a) canon of equality
b) canon of certainity
c) canon of economy
d) canon of convenience

Question 3.
This taxation is a very opposite of progressive taxation.
a) degressive
b) proportional
c) regressive
d) none
c) regressive

Question 4.
Income tax is a
a) direct tax
b) indirect tax
c) a & b
d) degressive tax
a) direct tax

Question 5.
Which tax is raised on provision of service.
a) wealth
b) corporate
c) wealth
d) service
b) Compulsory

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. ………………. is a term for when a taxing authority usually a government levies or imposes a tax.
Taxation

2. ………………. is the method, where the rate of tax is the same regardless size of the income.
Proportional Taxation

3. ………………. is paid to the Government by the recipient of the gift depending on the value of the gift.

4. ………………. burden cannot be shifted by taxpayers.
Indirect tax

5. Indirect tax is elastic.
more

III. Match the following:

 A B 1. Principle of taxation a) Direct Tax 2. Estate tax b) Goods and Service Tax 3. Excise Tax c) Adam Smith 4. 01.07.2017 d) Less elastic 5. Direct Tax e) Indirect Tax

 A B 1. Principle of taxation a) Direct Tax 2. Estate tax b) Goods and Service Tax 3. Excise Tax c) Adam Smith 4. 01.07.2017 d) Less elastic 5. Direct Tax e) Indirect Tax

IV. Odd one out:

Question 1.
Which one of the following is not an indirect tax?
a) Service tax
c) Estate duty
d) Excise duty
c) Estate duty

V. Correct one out:

Question 1.
Which one of the following tax is a direct tax?
a) Service tax
b) Wealth tax
c) Sales tax
d) Progressive tax
d) Progressive tax

Question 1.
Define tax.
Taxes are compulsory payments to the government without expectations of direct or return or benefit to the taxpayers.

Question 2.
Why taxes are imposed?

• For the welfare of society, the government has to perform various functions so it requires revenue.
• The main source of revenue is tax.

Question 3.
Write the name of taxation types and draw its diagram.
There are three types of Taxation:

1. Proportional Tax
2. Progressive Tax
3. Regressive Tax.

Question 4.
Write any three importance of tax.

1. Health
2. Education
3. Governance.

Question 5.
What are the types of tax? and explain it.
Taxes are classified into two types. They are:
1. Direct Tax:

• A Direct tax is paid directly by an individual or organisation to imposing an entity
• Eg: Income tax, Wealth Tax, etc.

2. Indirect Tax:

• Indirect Tax is a tax whose burden can be shifted to others.
• Eg: Service tax, Value added tax, etc.

Question 6.
Write a short note on Gift Tax and Service Tax.
It is paid to the Government by the recipient of the gift depending on the value of the gift.

Service Tax:

• It is raised on the provision of Service.
• This tax is collected from the service recipients and paid to the Central Government.

Question 7.
What is Goods and Service Tax?

• Goods and Services Tax is a kind of tax imposed on the sale, manufacturing, and usage of goods and services.
• This is applied to achieve overall economic growth.
• GST is particularly designed to replace indirect taxes.

Question 8.
Write a distinction between direct and indirect tax.
Direct Tax:

1. Burden cannot be shifted by taxpayers.
2. Tax is imposed on personal income and corporate income.
3. Direct tax has no inflation pressure.
4. The impact and incidence are the same in case of direct tax.
5. Direct tax is less elastic.

Indirect Tax:

1. Easily be shifted to another person.
2. Taxes imposed on various goods and services.
3. This tax has inflation pressure.
4. The impact and incidence are different in the case of indirect tax.
5. Indirect tax is more elastic.

Question 1.
Write answer briefly the principles of taxation.
Adam Smith’s principles or camions of taxation still form the basis of the tax structure of a modem state.
Adam Smith’s four Canons of Taxation:

1. Canon of Equality
2. Canon of Certainty
3. Canon of Convenience
4. Canon of Economy.

1. Canon of Equality:

• The government should impose taxes in such a way that people have to pay according to their ability.
• It does not mean an equal amount of tax but it means that the burden of a tax must be fair and just.

2. Canon of Certainty:
Certainty creates confidence in the taxpayer’s cost of collection of taxes and increases economic welfare because it tends to avoid all economic waste.

3. Canon of Convenience:

• Taxes should be levied and collected in such a manner that it provides maximum convenience to the taxpayers.
• It should always be kept in view that the taxpayers suffer the least inconvenience in payment of the tax.

4. Canon of Economy:

• Minimum possible money should be spent in the collection of taxes.
• The collected amount should be deposited in the Government treasury.

Question 2.
Explain the taxation types.
There are three types of Taxation:

1. Proportional Tax
2. Progressive Tax
3. Regressive Tax

Proportional Taxation:

• The rate of tax is the same regardless of the size of the income.
• The tax amount realized will vary in the same proportion as that of income.

Progressive Taxation:
The rate of tax will also increase with the increase of income of the person.

Regressive tax;

• A regressive tax is a tax applied uniformly, taking a larger percentage of income from low-income earners than from high-income earners.
• It is in opposition to a progressive tax.

Question 3.
Explain the importance of tax.
Importance of Tax: Taxes are crucial because governments collect this money and use it to finance the following social projects.
Health:

1. Without taxes, government contributions to the health sector would be impossible.
2. Taxes go to funding health services such as social healthcare, medical research, social security, etc.

Education:

1. Education could be one of the most deserving recipients of tax money.
2. Governments put a lot of importance in the development of human capital and education is central in this development.

Governance:

1. Governance is a crucial component in the smooth running of country affairs.
2. Poor governance would have far-reaching ramifications on the entire country with a heavy toll on its economic growth.
3. Good governance ensures that the money collected is utilized in a manner that benefits citizens of the country.

Other important sectors are infrastructure development, transport, housing, etc.

1. Apart from social projects, governments also use money collected from taxes to fund sectors that are crucial for the wellbeing of their citizens such as security, scientific research, environmental protection, etc.
2. Some of the money is also channeled to fund projects such as pensions, unemployment benefits, childcare, etc,

Question 4.
Explain the direct and indirect tax with examples.
Taxes are classified into two types. They are:

1. Direct Tax:

• A Direct tax is paid directly by an individual or organisation to an imposing entity.
• Eg: Incometax, WealthTax,etc.

2. Indirect Tax:

• IndirectTaxisataxwhoseburdencanbeshiftedtoothers. LSIOTT

Direct Tax:

It is paid to the Government by the recipient of the gift depending on the value of the gift.

Estate Duty:

• It is charged from success or of inherited property.
• It is not desirable to avoid payment of taxes

WealthTax:
It is imposed on the property of individuals depending upon the value of the property.

Indirect Tax :

Service Tax:

• It is raised on the provision of Service.
• This tax is collected from the service recipients and paid to the Central Government.

Sales TaxorVAT:
It is an indirect tax on the sale of goods because the liability to collect tax is that of the shopkeeper but the burden of that tax falls on the customer.

Goods and Services Tax(GST):

• Goods and Services Tax is a kind of tax imposed on the sale, manufacturing, and usage of goods and services.
• This is applied to achieve overall economic growth.
• GST is particularly designed to replace indirect taxes.

Question 5.
Why the need for a tax on people’s welfare? And explain it.

• The levying of taxes aims to raise revenue to fund governing or to alter prices in order
to affect demand.
• Some of these include expenditures on economic infrastructure like transportation, sanitation, public safety, education, health-care systems, etc., military, scientific research, culture, and the arts, public works, public insurance, etc., and the operation of government itself.
• When expenditures exceed tax revenue, a government accumulates debt. A portion of taxes may be used to service past debts.
• Governments also use taxes to fund welfare and public services. These services can include education systems, pensions for the elderly, unemployment benefits, and public transportation.
• Energy, water, and waste management systems are also common public utilities.
• The purpose of taxation is to maintain the stability of the currency, express public policy regarding the distribution of wealth, subsidizing certain industries or population groups, or isolating the costs of certain benefits, such as highways or social security.

7th Social Science Guide Tax and its Importance Additional Important Questions and Answers

Question 1.
According to Prof. Seligman, taxes are defined as a compulsory contribution from a person to the government to defray the expenses incurred in the common interest of ail without reference to special benefits conferred.
a) Chamberlin
b) Seligman
d) Marshal
b) Seligman

Question 2.
A regressive tax is a tax applied uniformly, taking a larger percentage of income from low-income earners than from high-income earners.
a) Progressive tax
b) Regressive tax
c) Proportional tax
d) Health
b) Regressive tax

Question 3.
Without taxes, governments would be unable to meet the demands of their societies.
a) societies
b) Revenue
c) Economic
d) Expenditure types
a) societies

Question 4.
Wealth tax is imposed on the property of individuals depending upon the value of the property.
a) Company
c) Wealth tax
d) Direct tax
c) Wealth tax

Question 5.
The gift tax is paid to the Government by the recipient of the gift depending on the value of the gift.
b) Indirect tax
c) Direct tax
d) Service

Question 6.
Goods and service tax is applied on services and goods at a national level with the purpose of achieving overall economic growth.
a) State
b) National
c) Rounding off
d) Town
b) National

Question 7.
Excise tax in India is levied by the Central Government.
a) Service tax
b) VAT
c) Excise tax
d) direct tax
b) VAT

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. …………………..is the government should impose taxes in such a way that people have to pay according to
their ability.
Canon of Equality

2. …………………. is the taxes should be levied and collected in such a manner that it provides a maximum of convenience to the taxpayers.
Canon of Convenience

3. …………………. is the minimum possible money should be spent in the collection of taxes.
Canon of Economy

4. …………………. could be one of the most deserving recipients of tax money.
Education

5. A …………….is paid directly by an individual or organisation to imposing entity.
Direct tax

6. The central Board of Revenue act implemented in the year.
1963

7. The tax is levied on the profit of corporations and companies is
Corporation Tax

8. ………………… is a liability to collect tax is that of shopkeeper but the burden of that tax falls on the customer.
VAT

9. ………………… is a kind of tax imposed on the sale, manufacturing, and usage of goods and services.
Goods and Services Tax

10. A government’s ability to raise taxes is called its ………………….
fiscal capacity

III. Match the following

 A B 1. Adam smith a) Payment using aadhar 2. Progressive tax b) 1963 3. Digital India c) 2005 4. Central Board of Revenue Act d) Canon of Taxation 5. VAT e) increase the income

 A B 1. Adam smith d) Canon of Taxation 2. Progressive tax e) increase the income 3. Digital India a) Payment using aadhar 4. Central Board of Revenue Act b) 1963 5. VAT c) 2005

IV. Odd one out:

Question 1.
a) Service Tax – Swachh Bharat cess
c) Indirect Tax – More elastic.
a) Service Tax – Swachh Bharat cess

Question 1.
What was the Kalidas said about taxes?
“It was only for the good of his subjects that he collected taxes from them, just as the Sun draws moisture from the Earth to give it back a thousandfold”.

Question 2.
What are Adam Smith’s four Canons of Taxation?

• Canon of Equality
• Canon of Certainty
• Canon of Convenience
• Canon of Economy.

Question 3.
Mention some of the Wealth Taxes.

• Home
• Motor Car
• Jewellery
• Cash
• Urban Land
• Yachats, Boats, Aircraft.

V. Detail

Question 1.
Explain the following
a) Toll Tax and & Road Tax
b) Swachh Bharat Cess
a) Toll Tax and & Road Tax:
Toll tax is a tax you often pay to use any form of infrastructure developed by the government, for example, roads and bridges. The tax amount levied is rather negligible which is used for maintenance and basic upkeep of a particular project.

b) Swahh Bharat Cess:
This is a cess imposed by the government of India and was started on 15 November 2015. This tax is applicable on all taxable services arid the cess currently stands at 0.5%. Swachh Bharat cess is levied over and above the 14% service tax that is prevalent in the present times.

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science Guide Geography Term 3 Chapter 3 Natural Hazards – Understanding of Disaster Management in Practice

Tamilnadu State Board New Syllabus Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science Guide Pdf Geography Term 3 Chapter 3 Natural Hazards – Understanding of Disaster Management in Practice Text Book Back Questions and Answers, Notes.

Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science Solutions Geography Term 3 Chapter 3 Natural Hazards – Understanding of Disaster Management in Practice

7th Social Science Guide Natural Hazards – Understanding of Disaster Management in Practice Text Book Back Questions and Answers

Question 1.
………………………. is a event which causes enormous physical damage to property, loss of life and change in the environment.
a) Hazard
b) Disaster
c) Recovery
d) mitigation
b) Disaster

Question 2.
Activities that reduce the effects of disaster
a) Preparation
b) Response
c) Mitigation
d) Recovery
c) Mitigation

Question 3.
A sudden movement (or) trembling of the earth’s crust is called as ……………….
a) Tsunami
b) Earthquake
c) Fire
d) Cyclone
b) Earthquake

Question 4.
A sudden overflow of water in a large amount caused due to heavy rainfall is called ……………………….
a) Flood
b) Cyclone
c) Drought
d) Seasons
b) Cyclone

Question 5.
Road accidents can be avoided by permitting the persons who have ………………………. is allowed to drive vehicle.
a) Ration card
c) permission
d) Documents

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. A hazard is a ……………….. event that can causes harm or damage to human and their property.
disaster

2. Activities taken during a disaster is called …………………
Response

3. Displacement of water can produce one or more huge destructive waves known as
Tsunami

4. In case of fire accidents call the nearby police station or the no ……………….. for the fire service.
101

5. Disaster management refers to ……………….. of lives and property during a natural or manmade disaster.
conservation

III. Match the following:

 A B 1. Earthquake a) Gigantic waves 2. Cyclone b) Creak / Fault 3. Tsunami c) Uneven rainfall 4. Industrial accident d) Eye of the storm 5. Drought e) Carelessness

 A B 1. Earthquake b) Creak / Fault 2. Cyclone d) Eye of the storm 3. Tsunami a) Gigantic waves 4. Industrial accident e) Carelessness 5. Drought c) Uneven rainfall

IV. Consider the following statement and tick the appropriate answer:

Question 1.
Assertion (A) : In the modem world we can’t live happing everyday.
Reason (R) : Due to pollution and environmental degradation we are undergoing natural hazard and Disaster
a) A and R are correct and A explains R
b) A and R are correct but A does not explain R
c) A is in correct bt R is correct
d) Both A and R are in correct
a) A and R are correct and A explains R

Question 2.
Assertion (A) : Sudden movement (or) trembling of the earth’s crust is called an Earthquake.
Reason (R) : Movement of the tectonic plates, mass wasting, surface fault all leads to earthquake.
a) A and R are correct and A explains R
b) A and R are correct but A does not explain R
c) A is in correct but R is correct
d) Both A and R are in correct
a) A and R are correct and A explains R

Question 1.
Define Hazard.
Generally, a hazard is a dangerous phenomenon, substance, human activity, or condition that may cause loss of life, injury, health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods, services, social and economic disruption or environmental damage.

Question 2.
What is a disaster?
A disaster can be generally defined as “A serious disruption in the society causing widespread material, economic, social or environmental losses.

Question 3.
What are the 4 concepts of the Disaster management cycle?

1. Prevention
2. Mitigation
3. Preparedness
4. Response
5. Recovery
6. Rehabilitation

Question 4.
Name any two agency which involves in the warring system in Tamil Nadu.

• Tamil Nadu State Disaster Response Force (SDRF) has been constituted with a strength of 80 Police Personnel.
• They have been trained in disaster management and rescue operations in consultation with the National Disaster Response Force(NDRF).

Question 5.
Write about any three effects of the flood.

• Loss of life and property
• Displacement of people
• Spread of contagious diseases such as Cholera and Malaria etc.

Question 6.
Give any four Rail safety tips.
Rail Safety Tips:

• Stay alert. Train scans come from either direction at any time.
• Never sit on the edge of the Station Platform.
• Cross the tracks safely.

Question 7.
Name any four different industry which goes under industrial disaster frequently.

• Nuclear industries
• Chemical industries
• Match and crackers factory
• Cotton and Paper industry.

VI. Distinguish between:

Question 1.
Earthquake and Tsunami.
Earthquake

1. A sudden movement (or) trembling of the earth’s crust.
2. The movement of the tectonic plates, mass wasting, landslides, surface fault,etc., causes earth quake.

Tsunami

1. When an earthquake jolts the ocean floor, the sudden dislocation of the sea bed occurs and the resulting displacement of water can produce one or more huge, destructive waves.
2. These waves rise to several meters and may reach the coast within a few minutes.

Question 2.
Flood and cyclone.
Flood :

1. Heavy rainfall, cyclone, melting of snow, Tsunami or a dam burst.
2. A large amount of water is burst out.
3. Displacement of people, Spread of contagious diseases such as Cholera and Malaria, etc.

Cyclone :

1. Heavy rainfall, cyclone, melting of snow, Tsunami or a dam burst.
2. When it reaches land and destroys buildings and kills people, it can be described as a disaster.
3. Disrupts transportation, power communication.

Question 3.
Hazard and disaster.
Hazard:

1. A hazard is a dangerous phenomenon.
2. Human activity or condition that may cause loss of life.
3. Eg: Injury, health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods, services.

Disaster

1. Disaster occurs naturally.
2. A serious disruption in society.
3. Eg: economic, social, or environmental losses.

VII. Answer the following questions in detail:

Question 1.
Write about the disaster management cycle.
The six disaster management phases that have been used in the concept of disaster cycle are as follows;
Pre-Disaster phase:
Prevention and Mitigation:

1. The term prevention is often used to embrace the wide diversity of measures to protect persons and property.
2. Mitigation embraces all measures taken to reduce both the effects of the hazard itself and the vulnerable conditions to it in order to reduce the scale of a future disaster.
3. Therefore, mitigation may incorporate addressing issues such as land ownership, tenancy rights, wealth distribution, implementation of earthquake-resistant building codes, etc.

Preparedness:

1. The process includes various measures that enable governments, communities and individuals to respond rapidly to disaster situations to cope with them effectively.
2. Preparedness includes for example, the formulation of viable emergency plans, the development of warning systems, the maintenance of inventories, public awareness and education and the training of personnel.

Early Warning:

1. This is the process of monitoring the situation in communities or areas known to be vulnerable to slow onset hazards, and passing the knowledge of the pending hazard to people harmless way.
2. To be effective, warnings must be related to mass education and training of the population who know what actions they must take when warned.

The Disaster Impact:

1. This refers to the “real-time event of a hazard occurrence and affecting elements at risk.
2. The duration of the event will depend on the type of threat; ground shaking may only occur in a matter of seconds during an earthquake while flooding may take place over a longer sustained period.

During Disaster Phase:

Response: This refers to the first stage of response to any calamity, which includes examples such as setting up control rooms, putting the contingency plan in action, issue warning, action for evacuation, taking people to safer areas, rendering medical aid to the needy, etc., simultaneously rendering relief to the homeless, food, drinking water, clothing, etc. to the needy, restoration of communication, disbursement of assistance in cash or kind.

The Post- Disaster Phase:

Recovery: Recovery is used to describe the activities that encompass the three overlapping phases of emergency relief, rehabilitation, and reconstruction.

Rehabilitation: Rehabilitation includes the provision of temporary public utilities and housing as interim measures to assist long-term recovery.

Reconstruction: Reconstruction attempts to return communities with improved pre-disaster functioning. It includes the replacement of buildings; infrastructure and lifeline facilities so that long-term development prospects are enhanced rather than reproducing the same conditions, which made an area or population vulnerable in the first place.

Development: In an evolving economy, the development process is an ongoing activity. Long-term prevention/disaster reduction measures. For example like the construction of embankments against flooding, irrigation facilities as drought-proofing measures, increasing plant cover to reduce the occurrences of landslides, etc.

Question 2.
Write about the flood, its effects, and the mitigation
Flood: Sudden overflow of water in a large amount caused due to heavy rainfall, cyclone, melting of snow, Tsunami or a dam burst.
Effects:

1. Loss of life and property
2. Displacement of people and
3. Spread of contagious diseases such as cholera and Malaria etc.,

Mitigation for a flood:
They include flood walls/sea walls, flood gates, levees, and evacuation routes. Nonstructural measures reduce damage by removing people and property out of risk areas. They induce elevated structures, property buyouts, permanent relocation, zoning, subdivision and building codes.

Question 3.
Write about any five general survival techniques.
General Survival Techniques:

1. During the earthquake be under the table, chair, kneel to the floor and protect yourself. Go near a sturdy wall, sit on the floor and hold the floor strongly and protect yourself. Use only torch lights,
2. During flood forecast, store up necessary things like first aid etc. Listen to the local Radio/TV for instructions. Cut off all the electrical supplies during flood and earthquake,
3. In case of fire accidents call fire service (No. 101)
4. If clothes are on fire, “Don’t Run; Stop, Drop and Roll,”
5. Stay alert. Trains can come from either direction at any time,
6. Never sit on the edge of the Station Platform,
7. Cross the tracks safely.

Question 4.
Write about the earthquake, its effects, and mitigation steps.
Earthquake:
A sudden movement (or) trembling of the earth’s crust is called an earthquake. The movement of the tectonic plates, mass wasting, landslides, surface fault, etc., causes earthquakes.
Effects:
Due to a strong earthquake, loss of lives, buildings, roads, bridges, and dams are damaged. Earthquakes cause floods, tsunamis, landslides, fires, breakdown of water supply, and electrical lines. It may change the course of a river too.
Mitigation steps:

1. Construct an Earthquake resistant building.
2. Seek shelter under stable tables.
3. Move to open areas.
5. Put latches on cabinet doors and file cabinets.
6. Store hazardous materials in a sturdy place.
7. Keep fire extinguishers.

VIII. HOTS:

Question 1.
Why should we know about the natural disaster?

• To prevent loss of life.
• To Protect our belongings.
• To create awareness among youngsters.
• To be prepared with emergency phone nos.
• To be stocked with food, water medicine.
• For children and old age people.

Question 2.
Name four places in India which undergo landslide.

• Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Maharastra (Western ghats and Konkan hills)
• North Eastern Himalayas – (Darjeeling, and Sikkim)
• North West Himalayas – (Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh)
• Jammu and Kashmir.

7th Social Science Guide Natural Hazards – Understanding of Disaster Management in Practice Additional Important Questions and Answers

Question 1.
On 2nd to 3rd May ………………….. high-velocity dust storms swept across the parts of North India and more than 125 people died and over 200 were injured.
a) 2019
b) 2018
c) 2016
d) 2017
b) 2018

Question 2.
After …………………..  tsunami, cyclone Gaja is the worst natural disaster to hit Tamilnadu.
a) 2004
b) 2005
c) 2006
d) 2007
a) 2004

Question 3.
The word “Tsunami” is derived from the …………………..  word.
a) Italy
b) Germany
c) Korea
d) Japanese
d) Japanese

Question 4.
A low-pressure area that is encircled by high-pressure wind is called a …………………..
a) Hurricane
b) Cyclone
c) Flood
d) Tsunami
b) Cyclone

Question 5.
In the early hours of November 10, 2018………………….. cyclone had been spread around 120(Kmph).
a) Suthrina
b) vartha
c) Gaja
d) Verdan
c) Gaja

Question 6.
…………………..  is used to describe the activities that encompass the three overlapping phases of emergency relief, rehabilitation, and reconstruction.
a) Recovery
b) Reconstruction
c) Rehabilitation
d) Development
a) Recovery

Question 7.
…………………..  attempts to return communities with improved predisaster functioning.
a) Recovery
b) Reconstruction
c) Rehabilitation
d) Development
b) Reconstruction

Question 8.
State Disaster Management plan – The perspective plan – …………………..  prepared by the Revenue and Disaster Management Department.
a) 2018-2030
b) 2010-2030
c) 2020-2030
d) 2030-2040
a) 2018 – 2030

Question 9.
During the earthquake be under the ………………….., kneel to the floor and protect yourself.
a) table
b) below the wall
e) below the steps
d) near the mirror
a) table

Question 10.
In case of fire accidents dial ………………….. for fire service.
a) 102
b) 103
c) 101
d) 100
c) 101

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. Generally, a hazard is a …………………..
dangerous phenomenon

2. A ………………….. (or) trembling of the earth crust is called as earthquake.
sudden movement

3. Due to a strong earthquake, loss of lives, buildings, roads, bridges, and dams are damaged are called …………………..
Hazards

4. ………………….. is a natural hazard. It develops at sea.
Hurricane

5. ………………….. means harbor waves.
Tsunami

6. The term………….. is a sudden rush of a crowd of people.
stampede

7. …………………..  is a disaster.
Fire

8. ………………….. refers to the “real-time event of a hazard occurrence and affecting elements at risk.
Disaster Impact

9. ………………….. embraces all measures taken to reduce both the effects of the hazard itself and the vulnerable conditions.
Mitigation

10. If any ………………….. occur dial, 101 for Fire service and 108 for the Ambulance.
emergency medical help

III. Match the following:

 A B 1. Man-made disaster a) NDMA 2. Industrial disaster b) SDRF 3. CSIR c) Warfare 4. National Disaster Management Authority d) Bhopal gas leakage 5. Tamilnadu State Disaster Response Force e) Laboratories

 A B 1. Man-made disaster c) Warfare 2. Industrial disaster d) Bhopal gas leakage 3. CSIR e) Laboratories 4. National Disaster Management Authority a) NDMA 5. Tamilnadu State Disaster Response Force b) SDRF

Question 1.
Write down the examples of Natural disasters.
Earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions Landslides , Windstorms, Floods, and Epidemics.

Question 2.
What is the post-disaster phase in Disaster?

• Response
• Recovery
• Rehabilitation

Question 3.
What is Preparedness?
The process includes various measures that enable governments, communities, and individuals to respond rapidly to disaster situations to cope with them effectively.

V. Answer the following questions in detail:

Question 1.
Explain the general survival techniques while happening disasters.

• During the earthquake be under the table.
• Hold the floor strongly.
• During flood forecast, store up necessary things like first aid.
• In case of fire accidents dial 101 for fire service.
• Read the safety briefing card available in the seat pocket carefully.

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science Guide Geography Term 3 Chapter 2 Map Reading

Tamilnadu State Board New Syllabus Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science Guide Pdf Geography Term 3 Chapter 2 Map Reading Text Book Back Questions and Answers, Notes.

Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science Solutions Geography Term 3 Chapter 2 Map Reading

7th Social Science Guide Map Reading Text Book Back Questions and Answers

Question 1.
The science of map making is called …………………..
a) Geography
b) Cartography
c) Physiography
d) Physical Geography
b) Cartography

Question 2.
North, South, East and West are four directions are called as
a) Cardinal
b) Geographical
c) Latitudinal
d) Angels
a) Cardinal

Question 3.
Cultural maps are those which shows the ………………….. features.
a) Natural
c) Artificial
d) Environmental

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. ………………….. is an essential tool of a geographer.
Map

2. The directions in between the cardinal directions are the inter mediate …………………..
directions

3. …………………..in a map which explains the different colours and symbols used in it.
Legand

4. Cadastral maps are known as …………………..
Village and Town Maps

5. Small scale maps are helpful to us to show large areas like ………………….. and …………………..
Continents, Countries

III. Circle the odd one:

1. North East, Scale, North West and East.
2. White, Snow, High land, and Plains.
3. Relief map, Soil map, Physical map and Atlas.
4. Weather Forecasting, Climate, Rainfall and Temperature.

IV. Match the following:

 A B 1. Upper right comer a) Density and growth 2. Key (or) legend b) District (or) town 3. Large Scale map c) Natural relief features 4. Physical map d) Colours and Symbols 5, Population map e) ‘N’ letter

 A B 1. Upper right comer e) ‘N’ letter 2. Key (or) legend d) Colours and Symbols 3. Large Scale map b) District (or) town 4. Physical map c) Natural relief features 5, Population map a) Density and growth

V. Examine the Following Statements:

Question 1.
1. An Atlas is a bound volume of different types of maps
2. Atlas maps are drawn on smaller scale
3. Insignificant details are omitted
a) 1 and 3 are correct
b) 2 and 3 are correct
c) 1 and 2 are correct
d) 1, 2 and 3 are correct
d) 1, 2 and 3 are correct

Question 2.
Statement I : Globe is a three dimensional model of the Earth.
Statement II : It is easy to handle and to carry. As it can be rolled up or folded.
a) Statement I is correct and II is wrong.
b) Statement I is wrong and II is correct
c) Both the statements are correct.
d) Both the statements are wrong.
a) Statement I is correct and II is wrong.

VI. Name the following:

1. Representing the earth on a flat surface.
Map

2. Ratio between the distance on a map and distance on the ground.
Scale

3. Symbols which help to show road ways and railways.

4. A book which contains different kinds of maps.
Atlas

5. A map which shows administration divisions.
Political map

Question 1.
What is a map?

1. Map is a representation of the earth as a whole or a part of the earth drawn on a flat surface according to a given scale.
2. It can show continents, countries, cities and even a local area are drawn with specific details.

Question 2.
What is cartography?
The science of map-making is called cartography (carte means map and graphic means drawing’). One who draws maps is called a Cartographer.

Question 3.
What are the cardinal directions?
East and West, North and South.

Question 4.
What is an Atlas?

• Atlas is a collection of maps in a book.
• Atlas maps are small-scale maps covering large areas like continents and countries.
• Only prominent relief features, main roads and railways important towns are shown in Atlas maps.
• The study of geographic characteristics of a large area is possible at the time with the help of an atlas.

Question 5.
Name the types of Atlas.

1. School Atlas
3. Regional Atlas
4. National Atlas.

Question 6.
What are the uses of maps?

• Maps enable us to know the details of the landforms.
• Maps help the military personnel to campaigns.
• It is used in airplanes and ships.
• Maps are used for weather forecasting.

Question 1.
What are the elements of maps? Write about it?
The basic essential elements of a map are title, direction, scale and legend (or) key and signs and symbols.
Title:

• Every map has a title that describes the information given in the map.
• For example: India River.

Direction:

• In general maps are drawn with North orientation.
• It helps us to find other direction on the map like East, West and South.

Scale:

• The scale of a map is the ratio between the distance on the map between two points and actual distance between the two places on the ground.
• For example: 1 cm = 10km.

Question 2.
What are the three ways of representation of maps?

• A map is an essential tool for a geographer.
• The map is a representation of the earth as a whole or a part of the earth drawn on a flat surface according to a given scale.
• It can show continents, countries, cities, and even a local area are drawn with specific details.
• It is easy to handle and carry as it can be rolled up (or) folded and stored in computers.

Question 3.
Classify the maps based on functions.
The maps based on functions are:

• Relief, geology, soils, drainage, elements weather, and vegetation.
• Relief maps
• Geological maps
• Climatic maps
• Soil maps
• Cultural maps
• Political maps
• Population maps
• Economic maps
• Transportation maps
• Thematic maps

Question 4.
Write about the comparison of map and Globe.
Map

1. A map is a two – dimensional form of the Earth.
2. A map shows a small or a large area.
3. A map can show detailed information about the area.
4. A map is very easy to carry.

Globe

1. A globe is three – dimensional model of the Earth.
2. A globe is a true model of the earth.
3. A globe cannot show detailed information for an area.
4. A globe is not easy to carry.

Question 5.
Describe the types of maps based on the scale? Write about it?

• Based on Scale maps are two types.
• Large scale maps
• Short scale maps

Large scale maps:

• It shows small areas in greater detail because they are drawn on a relatively large scale.
• Cadastral maps are village and town maps.
• Topographical maps show smaller areas in much greater detail about the small areas.

Small scale maps:

• It shows large areas like continents or countries.
• These maps are drawn on 1 cm = 1000 km. These are called small-scale maps.
• Wall maps are small-scale maps showing large areas.
• Atlas is a collection of maps in a book. Atlas maps are small-scale maps covering large areas like continents and countries.

IX. HOTs:

Question 1.
Map is an essential tool for a traveler why?
Map is an essential tool for a traveller, It helps a traveller to find out direction. It also tells about the latitudinal and longitudinal extent of a place. It helps one to locate a place easily and follow the correct travelling route.

X. Activity:

Question 2.
Draw the convectional signs and symbols to given points
a) Bridge
b) Canal
c) Dam
d) Temple
e) Forest
f) Railway Station

Question 1.
………………….. portraits political boundaries of different countries and states.
a) Religion atlas
b) Soil maps
c) National atlas
d) Maps
d) Maps

Question 2.
The map-maker is called…………………..
a) Photographer
b) Cartographer
c) Pictograph
d) Sonographer
b) Cartographer

Question 3.
………………….. contains detailed maps of a country.
a) Religion atlas
b) Soil maps
c) National atlas
d) Climatic maps
c) National atlas

Question 4.
………………….. are drawn to show geological structures, rocks, and minerals.
a) Relief maps
b) Soil maps
c) Geographical maps
d) Thematic maps
c) Geographical maps

Question 5.
In general, maps are drawn with………………….. orientation
a) North
b) South
c) East
d) West
a) North

Question 6.
The features of White colour in Map is …………………..
a) Snow
b) Cloud
c) Rain
d) Water
a) Snow

Question 7.
The features of ………………….. colour in Map is Waterbodies.
a) Blue
b) Green
c) White
d) Yellow
a) Blue

Question 8.
The features of ………………….. colour in Map is Railway line
a) Black
b) Red
c) Blue
d) Green
a) Black

Question 9.
A ………………….. is a widely used symbol or a line pattern or a colour on a map.
a) Volcanoes
b) Forts
c) Sign
d) lakes
c) Sign

Question 10.
Maps help the ………………….. personnel to campaigns.
a) Military
b) Government
c) Disasters
d) Schools
a) Military

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. A ……………………. is an essential tool of a geographer.
Map

2. ………………….. show small areas in greater details because they are drawn on a relatively large scale.
Large scale maps

3. …………………..are village and town maps.

4. ………………….. shows smaller areas in much greater details about a small area.
Topographical maps

5. …………………. that show large areas like continent or countries.
Small scale maps

6. ………………….. are small-scale maps showing large areas.
Wall maps

7. …………………..is a collection of maps in a book.
Atlas

8. ………………….. is a web-based service that provides detailed information about geographical regions and sites around the world.
Digital Maps

9. map 1 cm is equal to …………………… km on the grand.
10 Km

10. The features of ………………….. colour in Map is agriculture.
Yellow

11. The features of ………………….. colour in Map is Forest.
Green

12. The features of ………………….. colour in Map is Mountain, Hill, and Contour.
Brown

13. The features of ………………….. colour in Map is Settlements, Road.
Red

14. On the map police station is denoted by the symbol …………………..
Ps

15. Maps are used for …………………..
weather forecasting

III. Match the following:

 A B 1. Maps a) Detailed information sites 2. Early times material b) Snow 3. Red c) papyrus 4. White d) Cartography 5. Digital maps e) Settlements roads

 A B 1. Maps d) Cartography 2. Early times material c) papyrus 3. Red e) Settlements roads 4. White b) Snow 5. Digital maps a) Detailed information sites

IV. Examine the Following Statements:

Question 1.
Statement – 1: In general Maps are drawn with North orientation.
Statement – 2: The North is Notified by the letter ‘S’ with an arrow mark.
a) Statement I is correct and II is wrong.
b) Statement I is wrong and II is correct
c) Both the statements are correct.
d) Both the statements are wrong.
a) Statement I is correct and II is wrong

Question 1.
How Maps are drawn in early times?
In the early times, various materials such as animal skin, cloth, parchment, papyrus, wet earth and clay tablets were used to make maps.

Question 2.
Write a short note on Digital maps.
Digital map is a web-based service that provides detailed information about geographical regions and sites around the world.

Question 3.
Define Globe.

• A globe is a three-dimensional model of the Earth.
• A globe cannot show detailed information for an area.
• A globe is not easy to carry.

Question 1.
What are the features of colours on the map?

 Colours Features 1. White Snow 2. Yellow Agriculture 3. Green Forest 4. Blue Water bodies (oceans, seas, and rivers) 5. Brown Mountain, Hill, and Contour 6. Red Settlements, Road 7. Black Railway line

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science Guide History Term 2 Chapter 3 Rise of Marathas and Peshwas

Tamilnadu State Board New Syllabus Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science Guide Pdf History Term 2 Chapter 3 Rise of Marathas and Peshwas Text Book Back Questions and Answers, Notes.

Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science Solutions History Term 2 Chapter 3 Rise of Marathas and Peshwas

7th Social Science Guide Rise of Marathas and Peshwas Text Book Back Questions and Answers

Question 1.
1. Who was the teacher and guardian of Shivaji?
b) Kavi Kalash
c) Jijabai
d) Ramdas

Question 2.
How was the Prime Minister of Maratha kings known?
a) Deshmukh
b) Peshwa
c) Panditrao
d) Patil
b) Peshwa

Question 3.
Name the family priest of Shambhuji who influenced him in his day-to-day administration.
a) Shahu
b) Anaji Datto
d) KaviKalash

Question 4.
What was the backbone of Shivaji’s army in the beginning?
a) Artillery
b) Cavalry
c) Infantry
d) Elephantry
c) Infantry

Question 5.
Who proclaimed wars and freed Malwa and Gujarat from Mughal domination?
a) Balaji Vishwanath
b) Bajirao
c) Balaji Bajirao
d) Shahu
Bajirao

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. The spread of the …………….. movement in Maharashtra helped the Maratha people to develop
consciousness and oneness.
Bhakti

2. …………… was the key official of the revenue administration of Peshwa.
Kamavisdar

3. The imperial moment of the Marathas sadly ended at ………………. in 1761.
Panipat

4. ……………… was the foreign minister in the Ashtapradhan.
Sumant / Dubeer

5. Shambhuji succeeded Shivaji after a succession tussle with ………………..
Anaji Datto

III. Match the following.

 1. Shahji Bhonsle a) Mother of Shivaji 2. Shambhuji b) General of Bijapur 3. Shahu c) Shivaji’s father 4. Jijabai d) Son of Shivaji 5. Afzal khan e) Shambhuji’s grandson

 1. Shahji Bhonsle c) Shivaji’s father 2. Shambhuji d) Son of Shivaji 3. Shahu e) Shambhuji’s grandson 4. Jijabai a) Mother of Shivaji 5. Afzal khan b) General of Bijapur

IV. State true or false:

1. The rocky and mountainous terrain gave protection to the Marathas from invaders.
True

2. Hymns composed in Sanskrit by the Bhakti saints were sung by people of all castes and classes.
False

3. Shivaji captured Puranthar from the Mughals.
True

4. Deshmukhs held sway over rural regions and their control was over between twenty and a hundred villages.
True

5. Abdali invaded ten times before finally marching on Delhi.
False

V. Consider the following statements. Tick (✓) the appropriate answer:

Question 1.
Assertion (A) : Soldiers were to live in forts and towns far away from home
Reason (R) : Maratha soldiers were not permitted to retire from battlefields each year for the
purpose of cultivating their land.
a) R is correct explanation of A
b) R is not the correct explanation of A
c) A is Wrong and R is correct
d)A and R are wrong
a) R is the correct explanation of A

Question 2.
Statement I: Judging from the ledgers of correspondence and account books, Peshwas were keen on accurate record-keeping.
Statement II: Artillery decided the battle at Panipat in 1761.
a) I is correct
b) II is correct
c) I and II are correct
d) I and II are false
a) R is the correct explanation of A

Question 3.
Find the odd one out
Shahji, Shivaji, Shambuji, Shahu, Rahuji Bhonsle

Question 4.
Find out the wrong pair
2. Peshwa – Nagpur
3. Holkar – Indore
4. Shinde – Gwalior
2. Peshwa – Nagpur

Question 5.
Arrange the events in chronological order
I) Shivaji became totally independent after the death of his guardian Kondadev.
II) Emperor Shahu died when Balaji Bajirao was Peshwa.
III) Shivaji resumed his military raids after his father’s death and conquered Javali.
IV) Balaji Vishwanath became Peshwa.
I), III), IV), II)

VI. Answer in one or two sentences:

Question 1.
The impact of the Bhakti movement on Marathas.

• The Bhakti movement in Maharastra helped the Maratha people to develop consciousness of their identity and oneness.
• It promoted a feeling of unity and social equality among the Marathas.

Question 2.
Chauth and Sardeshmukhi
Chauth:
It is one-fourth of the revenue collected as the protection money collected from the people by Shivaji.

Sardeshmukhi:
It was an extra one-tenth, as the chieftain’s due collected by Shivaji.

Question 3.
Role of Kamavisdar in Maratha revenue administration.

• He had to maintain a small body of soldiers to police the administrative area, from where they collected tribute or tax.

Question 4.
Execution of Shambhuji by Mughal Army.

• Shambhuji was in no position to resist the Mughals.
• But Aurangzeb himself arrived to Deccan and captured Shambhuji and after torture, hanged them put to death.

Question 5.
Battle of Panipat fought in 1761.
The imperial moment of the Marathas sadly ended at Panipat near Delhi in 1761. The king of the Afghans, Ahmad Shah Abdali, invaded eight times before finally marching onto Delhi. The Marathas were now divided among several commanders, who approached the battle with different tactics. Artillery decided the battle in January 1761. The mobile artillery of the Afghans proved lethal against both Maratha cavalry and infantry.

Question 1.
Examine the essential features of the Maratha administration under Shivaji.

• Deshmukh control twenty and a hundred villages.
• Each village was administered by village headman ‘Patil’, who was assisted by village accountant ‘Kulkami’.

• Shivaji gave utmost attention to his army and the training of its personnel.
• Every soldier was selected by Shivaji.
• Retired captains holding in charge of guarding the forts.

Shivaji designated eight ministers as ‘Ashtapradhan’. Peshwa was the Prime minister and Amatya was the finance minister.

• He collected Chauth and Sardeshmukhi taxes.
• The assessments were made 3/5 left to the cultivator and 2/5 taken by the Government.

• Civil cases decided by the Panchayat and village council.
• Criminal laws were based on the shastras of Hindu law books.

VIII. HOTs:

Question 1.
Compare the revenue administration of the Peshwas with that of Shivaji.

• Peshwas appointed Kamavisdar to collect the tax.
• A small staff of clerks and servants were employed to maintain revenue records.
• The contract for revenue collection auctioned.
• A prospective tax or Revenue required to pay one third to one – half of the revenue.
• While Shivaji required to pay Chauth (1/4 of revenue) as protection money, and Sardeshmukhi (extra 1/10 of revenue) chieftain’s due.
• The assessment was made on three fifths (3/5) left to the cultivator and two fifths (2/5) taken by the government.

X. Student Activity:

I. Match the responsibilities of Ashtapradhan

 A B 1. Amatya a) Foreign Minister 2. Waqia b) Commander-in-chief 3. Sumant c) Finance Minister 4. Senapati d) Interior Minister

 A B 1. Amatya a) Foreign Minister 2. Waqia d) Interior Minister 3. Sumant c) Finance Minister 4. Senapati b) Commander-in-chief

2. Group Activity

Question
Collect information about the Thanjavur Marathas with special reference to their contribution to education, art, and architecture.

•  Venkoji, a half-brother of great Maratha king Shivaji established the Maratha Kingdom at Tanjore in April 1674 A.D.
•  Shahuji I, Serfoji I, Serfoji II were important rulers of Tanjore Maratha place, Saraswathi Mahal Library were important buildings built by them.
• They favoured, Sanskrit, and Telugu literature.
• Tanjore paintings are added beauty to their palaces.

7th Social Science Guide Rise of Marathas and Peshwas Additional Important Questions and Answers

Question 1.
The welfare system followed by Shivaji was
a) Tulughama
b) Guerilla
c) Tank System
d) Bluewater policy
b) Guerilla

Question 2.
The major Mughal port in the Arabian sea was
a) Karachi
b) Cochin
c) Goa
d) Surat
d) Surat

Question 3.
Shivaji assumed the title Chhatrapathi in the year.
a)1654
b)1664
c)1674
d)1684
b) 1664

Question 4.
The village accountant and a keeper of records in the Maratha empire was
a) Kulkarni
b) Patil
d) Senapathi
a) Kulkarni

Question 5.
Eight ministers council of Shivaji was known as
c) Navarathnas
d) Triratnas

Question 6.
The name of the Gwalior Maratha family is ……………..
a) Gaikuvar
b) Bhosle
c) Holkan
d) Scindhia
d) Scindhia

Question 7.
Shivaji conquered Javali from the Maratha chief …………………..
a) Chandra Rao More
b) Shaisha Khan
c) Afzal khan
a) Chandra Rao More

Question 8.
………………was the major port of Mughals.
a) Bijapur
b) Javali
c) Pune
d) Surat
d) Surat

Question 9.
In Maratha administration ……………… held sway over rural regions.
a) Patil
b) Kulkami
c) Deshmukkhs
d) All of these
c) Deshmukkhs

Question 10.
In Maratha Administration Waqia – navis was responsible for …………….. ministry.
a) Finance
b) External affairs
c) Interior
d) Law
c) Interior

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. ……………. was the father of Shivaji.
Shaji Bhonsle

2. Shivaji’s mother ……………….
Jijabal.

3. Two great Hindu epics are ……………. and the ……………
Ramé yana, Mahabharatha.

4. The strength of Shivaji’s army was …………….. Soldiers.
Mavali foot

5. Shivaji conquered Javali in …………………
1656

6. Aurangzeb’s uncle and the Mughal general were…………….
Shaista Khan

7. Shivaji plundered Surat in ………………
1664.

8. Chatrapati means ……………….
Parasolpati

9. The village headman in Maratha kingdom was …………………..
Patil.

10. ………………… was the chief Justice in the Marathon empire.

11. Shahu mean …………….
honest

12.Two prominent Maratha families are …………….., …………….

13. During the period of the ……………….. the northern frontiers of the Maratha state extended
Peshwa Balaji Bajiro

14. The revenue administration of Peshwa was headed by a key official called ………………….
Kamavisdar

15. the Third Battle of Panipat was fought in the year …………………
1761 A.D

III. Match the following:

 1. Peshura a) Village accountant 2. Patil b) Finance Minister 3. Amatya c) Prime minister 4. Kulkami d) Village head man

 1. Peshura c) Prime minister 2. Patil d) Village head man 3. Amatya b) Finance Minister 4. Kulkami a) Village accountant

IV. State true or false:

1. The Bhakti Movement in Maharastra helped the Maratha people develop consciousness of their identity and oneness
True

2. The forces of Shivaji Plundered Surat in 1674.
False

V. Consider the following statements. Tick (✓) the appropriate answer:

Question 1.
Assertion (A) : Shivaji’s father captivated by the Sultan of Bijapur.
Reason (R) : Shivaji’s Military raids angered the Sultan of Bijapur.
a) R is not the correct explanation of A
b) R is the correct explanation of A
c) A is correct and R is wrong
d) (A) and (R) are Correct
b) R is the correct explanation of A

Question 2.
Assertion (A) : Bajirao assumed the powers of the commands in chief
Reason (R) : He didn’t want to depend on Deshmukh’s
a) R is not the correct explanation of A
b) R is the correct explanation of A
c) A is correct and R is wrong
d) (A) and (R) are Correct
a) R is not the correct explanation of A

Question 3.
Find the odd one out.
1. Shurunavis, Waqia – Navis, Sumant, Kamavisdar

VI. Answer in one or two sentences:

Question 1.
Who were the notable saints of the Bhakthi movement?
Eknath, Tukaram, and Ramdas were the notable saints of the Bhakti Movement

Question 2.
What is the meaning of Chhatrapati?
Chhatra means ‘parasol’, pati means ‘master or lord’ is the Sanskrit equivalent of King or Emperor. It was used by the Marathas, especially Shivaji.

Question 3.
Name the prominent Maratha families.

• Bhonsle at Nagpur
• Holkar at Indore
• Shinde or Scindhia at Gwalior
• Peshwa at Pune.